Thursday, October 31, 2019

Abdull Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Abdull - Essay Example pt to redeem the government from a similar situation, where discussions are on to inject the money previously meant for a promotion in the number of secondary enrolments in the nation, in the financial sector of the economy which is going through a difficult phase right now. The target of the administration is to enhance the GDP situation in the nation that will serve as a gateway towards a stable growth path in future. This study is an effort to disentangle the tight spot, with the help of empirical analyses, availing various statistical tools. The Finance Ministry of the nation had already decided upon the implementation of policy measures to improvise the country’s rate of enrolment in secondary education, as the desired channel of fund inflow. However, the financial shock that overwhelmed the economy meanwhile, and led to imperative demands for financial support from banks around the country, has compelled it to reconsider the outcome of its previous meeting. The deadlock that the nation is facing at present could be logically solved by means of statistical analysis. The idea is to carry on a comparative analysis through estimating a regression equation, with a function of change in GDP as the dependent variable and the changes in both the levels of secondary school enrolments and infusion of credit to the banking sector, as the independent ones along with a number of other variables, expected to produce significant impact on the dependent variable. To be precise, the model being designed for estimation is, The question that might arise at this point is that, what should be the basis of deductions regarding the validity of the above model as well as for the reliability of the estimated coefficients. The subsequent sections will hopefully help the reader to reach a suitable answer to any such queries. The research aims to completely explore the average outcome of similar situations faced by other developing nations of the world and that is why will use

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Managing Multi-disciplinary Teams Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Managing Multi-disciplinary Teams - Essay Example Besides, the set goals should not only be practically realizable, but also in line with the relevant criteria and objectives governing the working of a particular organization. The most important task that calls for urgent attention in the management of a multi-disciplinary team is that all the members in that team should be sure about the specific roles assigned to them (Bacal, 2009). While allocating such roles, not only the abilities and aspirations of the specific employees ought to be taken into consideration, but no confusion should be left as to the allocation of responsibility and leadership pertaining to the specific tasks and roles. It is a common tendency amongst the teams to try to retain their old ways of working. However, the attainment of optimum efficiency and the successful achievement of the project goals require the teams to be flexible and adaptable (Bacal 2009). The case study under consideration brings to the light the need for setting clear-cut goals while managing multi-disciplinary teams, but also looking into the job of performance management through regular evaluation and feedback (Bacal 2008). The case study under consideration primarily involves a set of employees that includes two respiratory therapists, an intern, an administrative staff member, and a supervising head managing the overall activities of the department.One of the respiratory therapists is relatively young and is of an enthusiastic and positive temperament. The other therapist is quieter, mature, calibrated and much disciplined in his approach towards the work. The two therapists are expected to perform a whole range of duties like conducting an analysis of the issues at hand, conducting tests, assembling the equipment, and interacting with the patients and their family members. Being a therapist happens to be a stress intensive job and both the therapists tend to handle their jobs well in their own unique way. While the friendly nature of the younger therapist makes the patients feel at ease, the balance and confidence of the older therapist leaves his patients calm and reassured. Despite their conductin g periodical meetings, the relationship between the two therapists is marked by high conflict and disagreement, owing to the large scale and considerable differences in their approaches and ideas towards their work. The differences existing between these two therapists certainly need some astute conflict management (Farmer, 2009).The older therapist's approach towards one's work is very conservative while the younger therapist is more adventurous and spontaneous in his approach and wants to incorporate new challenges and issues in the organizational list of priorities. A conflict of opinion in the sphere of organizational priorities often has the potential to affect efficiency and productivity (Kerina, 2009). While the older therapist intends to be fixed and obstinate in his adherence to safety procedures, his younger counterpart believes in taking chances and to react according to the situation at hand. This environment of high conflict is negatively influencing the working of othe r therapists within the organization.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Concept of Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beholder

Concept of Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beholder In our daily life we pass by many things, sometimes we give them attention by observing then in a way that our minds are set to and sometimes we dont even bother to look. We might see and find the beauty in these things using the ways of knowledge such as reason, emotion and languages. When I think of these things I come to conclusion that they must belong to a certain area of knowledge such as science, religion, arts and mathematics. However in order to examine these things we need the ways of knowledge, so after all the areas of knowledge depends on the ways of knowledge.   Most of the times it turns out that not every person on earth looks at the things as others do. As it is said in the claim we see and understand things not as they are but as we are. I believe there is more than one vision for each thing. As it is said Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. On the other side when it comes to maths there is always an answer that we are certain off which we cant disregard and we cant argue about such as 5+5=10, it is well known that the result is 10 to everyone and no one can come up with a different answer, which means that we see things as they are. But when it is about the methods we used to reach the theories which might differ from one person to another, allowing the person to think of theories as what he is not as others.   When I want to do bunji jumping I Choose to experience it because to me I think that it is not a risky thing to do, while to many other people it might look to them as the most dangerous experience of life. So in that case I would be following my emotions about this certain things and destroy the doubts of others. A way of knowledge is the reason by which we observe and look at all things. For example in the area of the knowledge , we sometimes look at the art work and try to understand it the way the artist ex plained it but deep inside what really   matters   is the first impression about it weather its good or not and we try to think of it as it appears in front of our eyes. In addition to that we can use our emotions to look at the painting and understand it, what does it mean to us? What do you feel about the colours?  For example when I look at a painting where it is full of blue colors I would feel extremely lonely and as a result I will feel the anger in the painting.  On the other side the artist might have used the color blue to portray the feel of peacefulness. So it is our emotions that help us to understand the world in a different way than others.   My mood can play a major role in understanding the painting because when I am in a good mood I would see the colors in a cheerful way while I am in a bad mood I would see them as outrageous thing which will somehow effect my opinion in the paining. In conclusion my feelings and my mood can greatly effect my opinion about the painting.Our culture can play a great role in our understanding of the painting and in the way we see this painting, for example I am a girl who lives in a preservative family where my parents have taught me not to look at nude painting. So when I look at a nude painting I would find it very interesting no matter how bad the artist was because I have never seen a naked body before, so for me the idea of such a painting draws my attention to the max, so my judgment on the painting would differ from the judgment of others. The language can also affect my opinion a paintin g because the way that I communicate with others in order to understand their ideas can be effective, for example I can never understand what the artist exactly mean by her painting if I didnt understand the language she is speaking to me with. Cultures: I might not think the same way as the artist and people think about the painting if I am from a different culture than theirs. For example in a certain culture the white dress means wedding while in my culture it doesnt mean so,if the painting consisted of a white dress I wouldnt understand that the artist is talking about a wedding. When it comes to colors its scientifically approved that every person sees the color at different shades which allow us to have different views of the painting. The mental state of a person can affect his view about things, for example a mentally sick person can look at an apple as a red ball but to us as healthy people we would recognize the ball when seeing it. Factors affecting the mind such as drugs can also affect the way a person under drugs sees things. For instance if he looks at a tree it might be like an illusion to him or like a giant person standing in front of him but to us we can see and know that its a tree nothing else than a tree. But if you think of our case we look at a tree as a tree, as anyone else see it; we dont try to think of it as something else. The field of specialization for every person effects the way he thinks observe and look at things. For example a scientist will look at the leaf of the tree as a source of food for the plant because the photosynthesis occurs there but t a fashion designer he would look like it as a material for his clothes productions. Accordingly to housewives she will look at it as a decoration, a farmer will look at it as source of living. To a mathematician he will look at it as a geometrical shape with different angels. An artist will look at it as a mixture of colors mixing with each o ther. As the end of the day a leaf is a leaf no matter how we look at it.  An elevators ding sound may seem to a musician as an initial of a music chain of a song that would be completed by other sounds in the surrounding; on the other hand for us it may seem much less meaningful.   Moods also can effect in your way of treating and thinking about ancidents like if somebody pushed you accidently or got into your way while you are in a bad mood you may explain it as if that person did it on purpose and make a big deal out of it, in contrast if I was in a good mood and this situation occurred intentionally I may think that it was by accident and ignore it or I wouldnt have paid any attention to it. If a writer was present in a seen it may be printed in his mind with full details including its varied aspects, while others may remember it generally with poor details or neither as if it is a daily normal seen.  Blind may depend on his of touch instead of his non-existing sight ,he will touch a lot of things and his instinct will help him to see things and feel things much more than what a normal person do so a lot of times you see them have certain talents that differs them and extinguish them from others.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Pateman On Locke Essay -- essays research papers fc

For years social contract theorists had monopolized the explanation of modern society. John Locke was among those who advocated this theory of a collectively chosen set of circumstances. Carole Pateman, on the other hand rejects many of the pillars of the social contract and specifically attacks certain aspects of Locke's argument regarding paternalism and patriarchy. Pateman defends her idea that the individual about which Locke writes is masculine, instead of the gender-encompassing form of the word "man." Pateman also argues that Locke denies the individuality of women. Instead of scrapping his entire work, however, she grants him a couple of concessions, even acknowledging Locke as anti-patriarchal. If John Locke were around to defend his theories, he would probably have an opinion about the treatment of his work. To accurately discuss Pateman's view of Locke's paternal/patriarchal theory, a working knowledge of the theory itself is necessary. According to Locke "all men by nature are equal"(Second Treatise: 43) with the exception of children who have not reached the full state of equality, but must obey their parents. Domestic and political power is vested in the Father, according to Locke. As he puts it, "the natural fathers of families, by an insensible change, became the politic monarchs of them too."(Second Treatise: 42) Locke does not reserve domestic power regarding children solely to the Father, however. Instead he claims that the mother "hath an equal title."(Second Treatise: 30) He even defends the rights of children. Locke argues that children have the same moral rights as any other person, though the child's inadequate mental faculties make it permissible for his parents to rule over him to a limited degree. "Thus we are born Free, as we are born Rational; not that we have actually the Exercise of either: Age that brings one, brings with it the other too." (Second Treatise: 30) Locke does specify that children are free because of their "father's title," in addition to being governed by the law of their father. It is less clear in this situation whether Locke is using the term "father" to include both parents as the "term" man can be interpreted to mean both sexes. It is likely, based on the tradition of male heredity prevalent during his time, that Locke liter... ...tical monarchs." Another far-reaching defense Locke could pose for his theories is a simple clarification of terms. Pateman relies heavily on the fact that Locke's definition of "man" is man, not humanity. If the late philosopher were present today he could clarify precisely what he meant by this term, and dispel or support Pateman's accusation. John Locke's view of the the social contract comes under attack by the criticism of Carole Pateman. She not only refutes his use of terms, but also accuses Locke of ignoring women. Pateman claims that Locke purposefully left women out of the original contract in the same fashion that he denies their individuality. Like most people, Locke would likely defend himself and his theories to the best of his abilities if he were able. Either way, Pateman's critique provides the opportunity for reexamination of a widely accepted theory and theorist. Works Cited Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co, 1980. Pateman, Carole. The Sexual Contract. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1988. Comments: This is an evaluation of modern-feminist philosopher Carole Pateman's description of John Locke's theories.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Preventing Caregiver Abuse Essay

The term â€Å"caregiver† is used to refer to an individual who assists another who cannot act freely due to certain chronic conditions. There are two main types of caregivers: the â€Å"informal caregivers† are family members or sympathetic friends who care for impaired older people living at home. The â€Å"formal caregivers,† on the other hand, are hired or volunteer workers who are connected either with the health care systems or social service agencies. The tasks associated with caregiving are grouped under two categories, namely: the ‘Activities of Daily Living† (ADLs) and the â€Å"Instrumental Activities of Daily Living† (IADLs). Included under ADLs are activities like getting in or out of bed, taking a bath, getting dressed, and the general toilet use. IADLs, on the other hand, may include meal preparation, general household chores, grocery shopping, and the management of the care receiver’s medication (Nerenberg, 2002). Studies have shown that the greatest negative consequence to caregiving is â€Å"stress† which is believed caused by fatigue due to lack of sleep, improper nutrition, and lack of exercise. Stress is also believed caused by the â€Å"burden† being experienced by caregivers. This burden increases as the level of disability of the care receiver increases, thereby needing a greater extent of care. Some quarters suspect that stress is one of the main reasons for caregivers to â€Å"go over the edge† and consequently abuse their patients (Nerenberg, 2002). For others, however, stress is not a cause but merely an aggravating factor. Abuse, which does not only mean physical injury but also includes â€Å"mental anguish, unreasonable confinement, sexual abuse or exploitation, or financial exploitation† of defenseless older people, are believed by some to be caused by factors like the caregiver’s frustration, sense of isolation, insufficient support from the community, behavior of the care receiver, and the nature of his or her daily tasks (Bratteli, 2003). Bratteli (2003) offered several legal remedies which are expected to prevent caregiver abuse in care facilities, namely: †¢ The care receiver should accomplish a â€Å"Financial Power of Attorney,† a legal document which would appoint his or her attorney-in-fact who will attend to his or her financial matters. This is usually a trusted relative or friend, the appointment of whom will prevent financial exploitation especially when the care receiver is staying in an institution. †¢ Accomplishment of a â€Å"Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care. † This is another legal document which appoints an agent who will decide for the care receiver on matters of healthcare. It contains the care receiver’s preferred method of treatment and would prevent neglect on the part of the caregiver in an institution. Nerenberg (2002), on the other hand, pointed to some techniques and services which are now available which could reduce the risk of abuse on the part of caregivers who care for older people at home. According to her, these techniques and services were specifically developed in order to meet the needs of caregivers in terms of assistance and support. One of these is a program aimed at providing relief. Under this program, employees or volunteer workers visit the patient at home and spend several hours with him or her in order to allow the caregiver to have some rest. Other programs arrange for the care receiver to stay for several days in a care facility to allow the caregiver to enjoy an extended break. Some support services take the form of friendly visits and reassuring telephone calls to address the feeling of isolation by providing â€Å"social contact and emotional support. † These practices also relieve the anxiety being felt by the caregiver. Finally, caregivers should also be provided with informative materials which would teach them the techniques for reducing stress like exercise and proper diet (Nerenberg, 2002). References Bratteli, M. (2003). CAREGIVER ABUSE, NEGLECT AND EXPLOITATION: The Journey Through Caregiving. North Dakota Family Caregiver Project, North Dakota State University. Nerenberg, L. (2002). Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse. National Center on Elder Abuse. Retrieved April 17, 2008 from http://www. ncea. aoa. gov/NCEAroot/Main_Site/pdf/family/caregiver. pdf

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Paper

I. Intro paragraph a. Hook: In the Irish American community of Brooklyn in the 1900’s, immigrants faced discrimination and crushing poverty b. In the world that Betty Smith describes in â€Å"A Tree Grows in Brooklyn† however, this poverty is depicted as a kind of virtue, a force that causes individuals to grow, and families to bond c. Yet, while female characters like Katie and Francie grow from overcoming the hardships brought on by poverty, Francie’s father Johnny Nolan is defeated by it and ends up dying of alcoholism.In the 1900’s, gender roles and social expectations of men and women were more rigid than today, and both sexes were supposed to stay within gender boundaries d. In telling the story of Katie and Johnny Nolan, Betty Smith reveals how often times immigrant women like Katie, who went against gender stereotypes, survived and grew from the hardships of poverty, while men like Johnny, who tried to fulfill their gender role, were defeated by it . II. 1ST Body paragraph a. In the beginning of the novel, he has found a job, but it is as a low paying waiter and unstable.Even so, he dresses with style, is handsome, and seems content being a singing waiter. He is able to bring home money to his wife, Katie. His daughter, Francie always helps him get his bow tie on and he calls her â€Å"pre-Madonna,† then she eagerly awaits his return with her brother Neely, for he always bring back treats like caviar and oysters. They are a happy family. However, Johnny loses his job and his family becomes more and more hungry, but he can’t help them. He can’t find another job i.In the early 1900’s, men were supposed to provide for their family, but as Johnny Nolan illustrates, this was hard for immigrant men. ii. Perhaps not being in control and not being able to bring home money to his family makes him feel like a waste and a failure, for as the story goes on, he drinks more and more until he dies of alcoholism. K atie tries to help her husband, â€Å"She told him it was a good thing, that suffering would harden him, would teach him such a lesson that he’d stop drinking. But poor Johnny just wouldn’t harden. † (P. 98) iii.Johnny grew up with the gender stereotype of the man of the house being the â€Å"breadwinner†, and in the Irish American community in Brooklyn, he cannot fulfill this role. III. 2ND Body paragraph i. Yet, Katie has no choice and even though the cleaning job she finds does not pay well, she goes out to work ii. In contrast, Katie, Francie’s mother, is able to overcome poverty because she breaks down the gender stereotypes of what a married woman should do in her time; Katie goes out of the house to work. At that time, were expected to stay home and be cared for while caring for the children iii.Yet, Katie has no choice and even though the cleaning job she finds does not pay well, she goes out to work. Thus, as she faces poverty, we see Kati e rise to the challenge by being flexible. In contrast to Johnny, she is able to experience poverty as a learning experience and change. At one point she says to passersby, â€Å"Look at that tree growing up there out of that grating. It gets no sun, and water only when it rains. It’s growing out of sour earth. And it’s strong because its hard struggle to live is making it strong.My children will be strong that way. † IV. 3RD Body paragraph a. Johnny and Katie Nolan, exemplify a theme of gender difference in the overcoming of poverty for immigrants i. Katie is flexible and able to adapt, so she eventually obtains a better life. She does not stay within her gender role of remaining in the house, but goes out to work. In contrast, Johnny is unable to be as flexible and his stubbornness in keeping within his gender role and his own idea of his responsibility to his family eventually destroys him ii.Betty Smith does not judge Johnny in her novel, but rather portrays him as a sympathetic and highly likeable, but he is a conflicted and ultimately tragic character. V. Conclusion paragraph a. In the patriarchal society of the early 1900’s that Betty Smith describes in her book â€Å"A Tree Grows In Brooklyn†, it would seem logical if women did not fair as well as men in times of difficulty. After all women had fewer rights. They could not vote or get the same wages as men i. By going against gender stereotypes, Katie is able to persevere and overcome poverty, while her husband, Johnny Nolan, who tries to follow them, is defeated iii.In 2012 many women have broken gender boundaries; Hilary Clinton is Secretary of state, Lady Gaga and Beyonce are millionaires and international pop stars. Men too have broken out of gender stereotypes for it is socially acceptable for men to work at home and even earn less than women. In â€Å"A Tree Grows In Brooklyn, â€Å" however, Betty Smith captures a world, gone now, in which strict gender roles defined a person’s life. But for immigrants, trying to make a start in America, the need to adapt and go against these gender roles was critical.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Future of the World essays

The Future of the World essays The world today is home to over six billion inhabitants. China and India are home to over two billion people and these countries are already experiencing the first signs of over population. If the population continues to grow as it is, the world can expect some serious problems within the next thirty years. Every day a quarter of a million people are added to the world, which equates to eighty seven million people per year. With such an increase in population, one can only expect the depletion of earths natural resources and the widespread suffering for its inhabitants. Such a dramatic increase in population would, in turn, cause many environmental consequences. Having twice as many people could result in severe problems, such as air pollution and waste management. The more people the earth has, the more industrial society will become. Increased industrialization will take a toll on the earths environment and cause heavy air pollution. The biggest cause of air pollution today is vehicle exhaust, through the burning of fossil fuels. While the cars of today have made some improvements, if the earths population doubles then it can only be expected that the air pollution would double. In addition, space for garbage dumps and more treatment plants will have to be built to deal with the increase in waste. The destruction of vegetation in order to create more room for homes and the dumping of waste, will not allow enough air to be cleaned, nor will it leave enough space to produce enough food to support the worlds population. Thirty-five countries now face serious food shortages, including two-dozen in Africa, according to a report released by the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. If this is happening in the world today what can be expected in thirty years. Many countries are on the verge of over population, expanding every which way to make room. This expansion often extends into agricultural...

Monday, October 21, 2019

My Sad Life Essays - Blood, Free Essays, Term Papers

My Sad Life Essays - Blood, Free Essays, Term Papers My Sad Life The sun was setting. Far to the east, threatening black clouds arose from the fumes of pollution from the several smoke stacks towering over the city. The streets were pock marked and dented with the recent shower of acid rain. Hot boiling steam from the sewers made the temperature of day much hotter than it really was. Just outside the borders of the city is a lake covered with muck and crude oil spills. Death and despair floated aimlessly on the surface of the unhospitable body of water. Corpses of dead fish, seagulls... bobbed just under the rim of the black slime. The black slime sensing fresh prey, extended it's corrupt and revolting tendrils farther...until it caught another unsuspecting victim, choking and engulfing, destroying, leaving just another emtpy shell behind, devoid of any life. Night set in, the stars were obscured by thick blankets of smoke. The day was done. Stores got ready to lock up and street lights were turned on to aid the bread winners, so they may travel safely. Few were fortunate enough to own automobiles so they could avoid the cold dangerous streets and dark alleyways. Most shops were already abandoned, finished for the day. Yet few doors were still open, desperate for any last minute customers. One such shopkeeper was Phil Anderson. Anderson had worked as a pharmacist for most of his life. At forty, he had little to show for. The pollution that caused the gradual decay of the city had had negative effects on business, as well as the environment. Phil, though by all means not an old man, showed signs of premature aging. His skin was pale and dry, wrinkled by the everyday punishment of the deteriorating sorroundings. Few strands of grayish white hair lined his almost bald, dandruff infested scalp. Looking at Phil with his characteristic limp, slouched posture and bulging belly one might think him an extremely unathletic person. But then again it was not entirely his fault. His eyes were red and bloodshot, the glasses he wore only made these features more obvious. With shaking skinny hands, Phil slowly put away the last of the items on top of the counter. Finally done, he flicked off the lights and rummaged through his pockets for his keys. Looking one last time to make sure the shop was in order, Phil locked up the store and left. He failed t o notice a dark shadow spying on him as he counted the bills he had earned today, and put it away into his black leather wallet. The tall dark figure studied the pharmacist a while longer before trailing him. The narrow dirty street smelled of weeks old garbage and animal wastes. Smog was still thick in the air causing him to cough repeatedly. He stopped for a moment to catch his breath. Remembering his air filter in his pocket, Phil gingerly took it out and put it on. Feeling much better Phil continued down the street, heaving a sigh of relief. Bibliography none

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Breakfast - By John Steinbeck

John Steinbeck was a known writer in the 30’s. He was known for writing about poverty in the 30’s with focus on the life of the exposed working class. His stories takes place around Salinas California where he was born. The short story Breakfast by John Steinbeck deals with the exposed people of the 30’s and their way of managing life with what they are given. The short story features a Narrator, whose name we are not told, however, the narrator is also the protagonist in his own story. The narrator tells us about a memory which brings joy to him when remembering details about it. At first he tells about himself walking along a country road on an early morning, feeling the cold while observing the light growing behind the eastern mountains. As he walks he smells fried bacon and baking bread. He sees a tent where a girl, an older man and a younger man sit. The men bid him a good morning and offers him to sit and eat breakfast with them. The narrator accepts and sits down with them being told that they pick cotton for their own clothes and then they eat and drink as much coffee as they can, refilling and refilling. While they had refreshed themselves with warm food the narrator observed the sun rising above the mountains spraying light upon the valley. The two men and the women offer the narrator to come along and pick cotton with them. However, the narrator declines the offer and separates from the cotton pickers. At the end of the story the reader returns to the narrators present where the he reflects upon the event. The story is located in a valley during the early morning just before dawn. In the beginning the setting is described with the words â€Å"lavender grey† and â€Å"black-blue†. He also feels the touch of the morning temperature as cold, but not painfully cold. All in all the setting we are introduced to at the opening of the story places the protagonist in a sad and colourless environment. Though, while he eats with the cotton pickers, the setting changes from cold and dark to light and red. You could say that the dark-blue and lavender grey colours in the before sunrise represent the lifelessness and sadness, while the red colour mixed with the light, spraying upon the valley, after sunrise represent warmth and joy. The two men and the woman, who the narrator meets, are poor hard working people, who are not wealthy in material. They don’t have chairs, they live in tents and their equipment is described as poor; â€Å"Beside the tent there was a flash of orange fire seeping out of the cracks of an old rusty iron stove. † Even though the cotton pickers have poor conditions they have certain traits that the protagonist remembers them for. Firstly, we are told that they make their own clothes from picking cotton and that they have only been eating well for twelve days. However, they still show generosity towards the protagonist and offer him breakfast. Therefore, we can call them generous. Secondly, they are full of contentment. Even though they live like nomads, finding cotton and food where they can and not living on much, they smile and keep a good vibe. Thirdly they are grateful to god and thank him for what they have; â€Å"The older man filled his mouth and he chewed and chewed and swallowed. Then he said, â€Å"God Almighty, it’s good†Ã¢â‚¬ . Their wealth is not measured in materialism but in attitude towards life. They are not given any names because each of them do not have their own character. This is because they represent a type of people and symbolizes traits. Their simplicity in symbolizing generosity, contentment and being gratefulness to god have a clear affection upon the protagonist. After the protagonist and the cotton pickers part we return to the narrator reflecting on the experience. Here he says; â€Å"That’s all. I know, of course, some of the reasons why it was pleasant. But there was some element of great beauty there that makes the rush of warmth when I think of it. † The sensation the protagonist gets from the experience is from the affection the people had on him with their traits. The details he remembers such as their personality and the sun rising above the mountain spraying a red gleam upon the valley just as he just finished the warm breakfast all culminates into something unique. However, the most significant about the memory is the affection the cotton pickers had and still have on the protagonist. The painting The honeymoon Breakfast from 1887 by Daniel Ridgway Knight contains a newly married couple sitting in the nature preparing their breakfast. All they have is some food and the company of one another, but they seem content about what they have. So in the same way as the cotton pickers the painting expresses their happiness through simplicity and content.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Does the Color of a House Effect the Inside Temperature Research Paper

Does the Color of a House Effect the Inside Temperature - Research Paper Example Repainting is very clear when you explore the properties of color and light and how it transfers heat into the inside of the house. When you understand these ideas, it seems clear that the color of your house can affect the temperature inside. In some ways, it is incorrect to say that color may affect the inside temperature of a home. Through a strict definition, color is just one way to determine how much energy will be received by a surface compared to another surface. The light from the sun must first pass through the filter of our environment before striking a surface. This surface absorbs some wavelengths and reflects others, which represent color bands to the human eye. These rejected wavelengths become reflected light and our perceived color of an object (Morton, 2006). As a result, color is the aftereffect of light instead of the cause of it. However, color is the way that we make sense of the world around us (Bear, 2006), so it is natural for us to define properties of absorbed light waves in terms of color. â€Å"The most technically accurate definition of color is: ‘Colour is the visual effect that is caused by the spectral composition of the light emitted, transmitted, or reflected by objects’â⠂¬  (Morton, 2006). Accepting the idea that color is the best way for us to predict the light waves that will be reflected off of a surface helps us to predict how much energy that surface will absorb. No matter what color something is, all objects absorb and give off energy based on the level of light it can absorb. According to Konopacki and Akbari of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (2001), the amount of energy absorbed or reflected by an object will depend on the darkness of the object and the material it’s made out of. Darker colors are dark because they absorb most of the energy or light that hits them, reflecting less light.

Reasons for Low GPA Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reasons for Low GPA - Personal Statement Example I started my university education in the USA and have struggled in making sure my aggregate points remain above average. My wish to transfer to Korea is based on the fact that I have faced several challenges in the United States that have had a negative impact on my education. I experienced nostalgia in America since I was in a new culture, new language and with no friends. The situation affected my education and social life. The loneliness caused depression, and I had to seek medical help. In my urge to excel in education, I sought help from my professor who gave me moral and academic support. The depression cost me dearly academically such that I registered a GPA of 2.34, which is the lowest in my university education. However, after medication and counseling, I improved notably to attain the current GPA of 2.72. The circumstances surrounding my studies in the United States are responsible for my poor performance. However, I demonstrated that I can perform better in a friendly environment. Transferring to Korea will eliminate the language problem and thus improve my understanding. Moreover, I prefer a Korean college life to the American life. My low GPA for last semester should not scatter my chance of transferring to Korea. Based on the above reasons, I implore you to consider the current GPA.

The legal issues that housekeeping department forced to confront Essay

The legal issues that housekeeping department forced to confront - Essay Example Some rooms are also interconnected rooms to serve an efficient accommodation purpose to many guests and big families. Other hotels also offer suits to the guest (Winter, Doris & Hatfield, 1989). Hotel offers laundry, dry cleaning facilities, and shoe polishing services among many others in an attempt to make the business environment comfortable through offering these special services. Some restaurants are connected with a bar that sells liquors to guests and this act as a good source of revenue. There are also banqueting, meeting and private party facilities in some big hotels that generate revenue when conferences, meetings or even seminars are held there. Resort hotels have recreational facilities like swimming pool and spa and try to make their place as pleasant as possible through using nice colors, attractive furnishing and most importantly a well kept and efficient staff (Alan & Wortman, 2005). The department of housekeeping determines largely whether the guests are satisfied when they visit the hotels. This is achieved through fine accommodation and quality service provision to the guests so that they are exited with their visit and stay in the respective hotel. The guest satisfaction and the hygiene factor are the primarily objectives that should be present in any given hotel ( Sudhir, 1985). The major revenue in hotels is generated by the rooms and the rooms that are not sold in any given night result to lose of revenue for ever. Loosing guests in the rooms can be attributed to poor hygiene factor, poor cleanliness, lack of modernization etc. A guest spends more time in the room alone than any other part of the hotel and hence a clean and hygiene environment will be of great significance. The guest may check whether the place is dusted off, whether the room is clean and may lose confidence of the place if this is not the case. Dirty and disorderly draws may deter him from putting his/her clothes down. The guest will be pleased when the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Business immigration Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Business immigration Law - Essay Example Firstly and most importantly, it is unfortunately the case that the United States does not currently offer any type of visa allowance for an individual that is merely the girlfriend/boyfriend of an individual who currently has legal immigration status within the United States. Rather, all types of pieces that allow for individuals to join their loved ones within the United States are necessarily confined to familial relationships; inclusive of marriage and the offspring that it might yield. Nonetheless, this does not necessarily provide an end to your inquiry. Rather, it merely helps to shine a level of focus upon some of the means by which Isabella might seek to attain a visa on her own. In this way, the options related below will focus specifically on this determinant. The first option is of course with relation to the business visa. The B-1 visa allows for individuals to stay in the United States as long as they renew their visa, and have adequate and reasonable state of employmen t. This would necessarily required you and your firm to possibly create a position in which Isabella to whom they serve. In such a way, the level and extent to which the B-1 visa would be granted would be strong. Due to the fact that several members of your firm have already attained business visas status, it is unlikely that a further applicant be denied as long as legitimate business grounds, consulting services, or other means necessitated her presence within the United States. This should not be understood to encourage you, nor any member of your firm to create something of a made up and unrealistic position. This would necessarily equates to fraud is punishable by hundreds of thousands of dollars in fines and possible imprisonment. Rather, this particular route is the most easy and perhaps the most logical the fact that the firm was originally founded upon the ideals and funding of Isabella Newton and your family. In such a way, she can legitimately be seen as a primary source of advice and direction through which the joint venture would likely proceed in that your future. Similarly, a little-known aspect of the B-1 visa is that allows for individuals to apply it merely wish to volunteer within the United States. In such a way, it is possible to leverage Isabella’s prior work as a seamstress and designer within the correct segment of volunteering. Means by which this could be accomplished would necessarily be for him Isabella to approach many of the volunteer organizations and exist within the United Kingdom and seek to discuss whether or not they would be willing to employ her as a volunteer or otherwise sponsor her to come to the United States. Regardless, the privileges and rights that a B-1 volunteer visa holder has as compared to the B-1 business visa holder are indistinguishable (Eagly 1290). In such a way, this approach is both logical and helpful as a means of providing a link than stay the by your side in the United States. It must be note d that just as with the B-1 business visa, the B-1 volunteer visa will require that Isabella participates regularly and volunteer efforts and ascribes by all pertinent rules and regulations under which the visa might originally

Psychology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Psychology - Assignment Example It is also the emotional control center. However, this is the part of the brain that is most prone to injury because of its location. The following are some of the effects in case the frontal lobe is not functioning due to damage. The major function of the frontal lobe is motor functions. Impairment to this part of the brain may result in loss of movements and strength (Carter, Susan, Martyn, Steve, Christopher, Uta and Melanie 107). This mainly affects the arms, fingers and hands. Damage of the frontal lobe may make an individual lose control of his or her hands and arms. Research has also revealed that damage to the frontal lobe may result in dramatic changes in a person’s social behavior. This is because scientists believe that this part of the brain controls nearly all behavioral aspects of human beings. Without optimum functionality of this part of the brain, a person may experience reduced ability to solve problems. Strong evidence also indicates that the person may have difficulties with being attentive. Impairment to this part of the brain may also result in memory loss. An individual may have problems identifying some of the people he or she knew before damaging the frontal lobe. An individual may also find it difficult to recall past events. Depending on which side of the frontal lobe suffers the most damage, a person may speak excessively or on the other hand speak fewer words. Impairment to the left side of the frontal lobe may result in a person speaking fewer words while damage to the right side of the frontal lobe may result in an individual speaking excessively. Damage to the frontal lobe may also affect the emotional aspect of an individual. Research has revealed that the frontal lobe controls the emotional part of humans in the brain. If the frontal lobe is not functioning optimally, an individual may become too emotional about things that he or she would have

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Contemporary Employee Relations - Evaluate the recent Employment Essay

Contemporary Employee Relations - Evaluate the recent Employment Relations experiences within the teaching industry in the UK - Essay Example In other words, employee relation can be defined as the policies that are connected with the management and the guidelines of relationships prevailing within the organisations and the staffs either in groups or individual within the work place (University of Cape Town, 2013). The employee relationship concept within the teaching industry in the UK serves mainly on the basis of dedication and inspiration of all the staff members, safe working environment and effective instrument for communication and participation. In the United Kingdom, it has often been observed that almost all the teaching places have engaged a team or a group of staff who look after the issues relating to employee relationship. ... re required to understand various decisive aspects such as labour laws, knowledge associated with employment law and must possess certain qualities such as communication and arbitration skills among others (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2005). In this essay, the major focus would be evaluating the current status of employment relations related experiences within the teaching industry of the UK and suggesting certain suitable employment relations initiatives that would meet the concerns of both the employer and employee. An Evaluation of the Current Employee Relationship within Teaching Industry in the UK Up to the year 2010, the status of employment relations in the UK teaching industry was in a complete disaster form, even though the government had laid down various labour laws in the nation. Specially mentioning, the individuals who have been entitled with the rights of applying labour laws did very little to deal with the problems that faced by the employers al ong with the employees of the teaching industry in the UK. But after the year 2010, several measures have been taken by both the concerned and government authorities to develop the employee relationship within the teaching industry in the UK. It has been viewed that the school authorities are taking keen interest in the maintenance of proper employee relationship within the teaching industry. The decline of trade unions in the UK has provided employee relation of the teaching industry with lots of significances. The local state government of the UK has adopted an inductive approach, ensuring that the employee relation of the teaching industries of the nation is typically based on realistic assumptions. The major focus of employee relation within the UK teaching industry lies on direction of

Psychology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Psychology - Assignment Example It is also the emotional control center. However, this is the part of the brain that is most prone to injury because of its location. The following are some of the effects in case the frontal lobe is not functioning due to damage. The major function of the frontal lobe is motor functions. Impairment to this part of the brain may result in loss of movements and strength (Carter, Susan, Martyn, Steve, Christopher, Uta and Melanie 107). This mainly affects the arms, fingers and hands. Damage of the frontal lobe may make an individual lose control of his or her hands and arms. Research has also revealed that damage to the frontal lobe may result in dramatic changes in a person’s social behavior. This is because scientists believe that this part of the brain controls nearly all behavioral aspects of human beings. Without optimum functionality of this part of the brain, a person may experience reduced ability to solve problems. Strong evidence also indicates that the person may have difficulties with being attentive. Impairment to this part of the brain may also result in memory loss. An individual may have problems identifying some of the people he or she knew before damaging the frontal lobe. An individual may also find it difficult to recall past events. Depending on which side of the frontal lobe suffers the most damage, a person may speak excessively or on the other hand speak fewer words. Impairment to the left side of the frontal lobe may result in a person speaking fewer words while damage to the right side of the frontal lobe may result in an individual speaking excessively. Damage to the frontal lobe may also affect the emotional aspect of an individual. Research has revealed that the frontal lobe controls the emotional part of humans in the brain. If the frontal lobe is not functioning optimally, an individual may become too emotional about things that he or she would have

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Pauls Case Essay Example for Free

Pauls Case Essay A Misunderstood Person Paul is a very interesting character, who has struggles within himself in the story of Paul’s Case by Willa Cather. His teachers misunderstand him and see him as a trouble maker throughout the story. So Paul begins to be self-conscious about how people portray him because of his actions. Paul reflects on his actions and begins to confuse reality life to fantasy life where he is comfortable in because of all the amenities he had. Paul is misunderstood by his teachers so; Paul begins to live in his fantasy world where he makes his mistakes in the real world. Paul is misunderstood by his teachers because of the way he looks and acts during the meeting the teachers have about him with the principal. This part of the story says. â€Å"His teachers felt this afternoon that his whole attitude was symbolized by his shrug and his flippantly red carnation flower, and they fell upon him without mercy, his English teacher leading the pack. †(Cather pg. 245) This is explaining how his teachers are portraying him by comparing his body language to a flower. Which symbolizes him shrugging off what his teachers though about him but, deep inside him he cared because Paul always thought someone was watching him. As the story said, â€Å"Paul was always smiling, always glancing about him, seeming to feel that people might be watching him and trying to detect something. †(Cather pg. 245) His teachers are explaining him as being a selfish person thinking about himself all the time, but what they don’t know is that he does think about them and what they think about him. Paul thinks that someone is always watching because of his teachers always trying to find something wrong about his life style. â€Å"He stood watching the approaching locomotive, his teeth chattering, his lips drawn away from them in a frightened smile, once or twice he glanced nervously sidewise, as though he were being watch. †(Cather pg. 260) Towards the end of story he thinks before he jumps because begins to think about someone watching him. Showing how he is always thinking about what others thought about him and how know one ever quiet seem to understand him. Paul seems to always be looking for someone to understand him, but in the end he was always misunderstood because of his choices that he made. Paul begins to confuse his fantasy life to reality and begins to make bad choices in his life. â€Å"The moment he inhaled the gassy, painty, dusty odor behind the scenes, he breathed like a prisoner set free, and felt within him the possibility of doing or saying splendid, brilliant things† (Cather pg. 251) His fantasy was to become a part of theatre in any way he could. So he begins to think of going to New York to pursue his dreams, but what he doesn’t understand is that, that’s only his dream not reality. Paul pursues this dream by stealing, â€Å"There was above two thousand dollars in checks, and nearly a thousand in the banknotes which he had taken from the book and quietly transferred to his pocket. † (Cather pg. 255) Paul takes the money for his selfish reasons of wanting to live his fantasy. It is wrong because he is living in his fantasy life and thinks nothing about it. All Paul wants to do is be rich because that’s the way he portrays himself in his fantasy life without working for the money. â€Å"Presently he came out of his white bathroom, resplendent in his new silk underwear, and playing with the tassels of his red robe. The snow was whirling so fiercely outside his windows that he could scarcely see across the street† (Cather pg. 254) In the hotel Paul is living the good life because of the money he has stolen just as in his fantasy. The following sentence shows how he finally begins to see reality because it’s showing how he is having a battle within himself about the bad things he did, which end up killing him inside. At the end of the story Paul ends up killing himself because he was never understood by his teachers or anyone else in his life. That made him unhappy within himself so he began to believe more in his fantasy world because he felt comfortable there. Paul didn’t seem to care about anything because he was living his fantasy life of being rich and going to New York. It took Paul a while to understand that he was doing wrong by stealing money and living in his fantasy life instead of reality. Towards the end Pauls’ fantasies end up killing him, since he is never figure out he tries to escape to his fantasies to make him happy but, by doing so he causes more problems to himself making him deeply unhappy. So he decides to kill himself to live free from all the worries that made his life so confusing to him.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Person Centred Mental Health Care for Schizophrenia

Person Centred Mental Health Care for Schizophrenia Person Centred Mental Health Care Disha Gupta References Essay: Ben is a 22 year old male who has been admitted to the acute in patient unit as a compulsory client under the Victorian Mental health Act (2014) who has a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Question When using recent research evidence please addresses the following; Identify the rationale and discuss strategies the mental health nurse will use to actively involve Ben and his carers when using the shared decision making process. (While in the acute mental health setting) AND Discuss strategies the mental health nurse, Ben and his carers can utilise to reduce his incidence of relapse in schizophrenia. Ben is a young adult suffering from schizophrenia that has been brought into an acute as an in-patient unit due to his psychotic behaviour. According to recent change in Victorian Mental Health Act a shared decision making process model which is being utilized within the practice in order for better outcomes. Shared decision making process is where two experts or a team of experts come together in making complex decisions for a patient (Chong WW, 2013). A set of health care providers come together and expand their knowledge and bring expertise in understanding the medical problem in order to provide a diagnosis. As well as the possible interventions and the possible risks of alternatives and potential benefits those are involved with the presented client. (REF). In this case we have Ben who has been â€Å"compulsory† admitted into an acute setting, which means this client is in need of serious treatment, which is why the shared decision making process has been put in place in order to achieve the right and hopefully an accurate treatment that works as it engages experts to be involved throughout the process. Not only a team of experts are involved in this process but, the individual is given the chance to put their values, understandings and preferences forward as well along with the support of family and other support network members (REF). This allows them to feel less inclined to thinking towards that they are being forced into something without their consent. As this gives them an opportunity to explore their wants and needs and together the individual and health care providers can come sometimes to a mutually agreed plan that is right for client. In order to plan and look after twenty two year Ben who is currently suffering from mental disorder we must first understand the problem followed by the treatment or action plan. Schizophrenia is an extremely complex disorder, it is occurred due to the imbalances of biochemical present in the brain which causes a person to believe in extraordinary and distorted thoughts, perceptions, emotions, movements and behaviour (REF). The symptoms of schizophrenia are categorized into two major categories, the positive or hard symptoms which include delusion, hallucinations, and grossly disorganized thinking, speech, and behaviour, and negative or soft symptoms as flat affect, lack of volition, and social withdrawal or discomfort (REF). This way it is easier for the health care providers to take further steps for a clients treatment as they have categories which clients fit into. In order for treatment or a plan to commence the nurse should start the process with a Two way exchange of information which allows the nurse (Clinician) to discuss the suitable treatment options and also any potential risks and benefits which may arise from these options and at the same time it will provide an opportunity to Ben to discuss his values and preferences regarding the treatment plan (REF). The two way communication will help to create a bond between the nurse and Ben which will help the nurse to know more about what Ben wants and this can help the nurse to reassure Ben in times of uncertainty, anxiety or vulnerability (REF). There is a strong need to develop an action plan for the treatment option to be executed and measured. An action plan is a document which is will be designed together by Ben and the mental health nurse and this plan should cover the issues being faced by Ben, the interventions which will be put in place and a review system to check the success of the action plan (REF).The plan should provide information about the Bens history, routines or symptoms that may assist in the treatment. Along documentations and communication there are other treatments also available such as medication. Antipsychotic medication treatment, Medication is one of the core foundations of treatment. Once the acute stage of a psychotic episode has passed, most people with schizophrenia will need to take medicine until further notice or until improved conditions where patients are not relied upon these mediations (REF). Antipsychotic medication is used to control the acute symptoms being experienced by the patient. These falls into two groups: typical and atypical antipsychotics (REF). Typical antipsychotics target the more obvious symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. They work by reducing the disturbing quality of the symptoms and accompanying disruptive behaviour occurred due to imbalances in the brain (REF). In this plan a nurse needs to understand which antipsychotic medications need to be given and what their actions and adverse side effects are. The nurse should never forget to follow the eight rights of drug administration (REF). This step is vital for a mental health nurse because the way each medication is administered will differ between patients. Antipsychotic drugs, like almost all medications, have unwanted effects along with their advantageous effects. During the early phases of drug treatment, patients may be troubled by side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, not able to keep the body still, muscle spasms, tremor, shaking, dry mouth, or blurring of vision (REF). Most of these can be corrected by lowering the dosage or can be controlled by other medications. Different patients have different treatment responses and side effects to various antipsychotic drugs. As mentioned before a patient may do better with one drug than another. Since Ben is in an acute phase of a schizophrenic episode first and foremost role of a nurse is to perform a mental health assessment or examination. A mental health nurse needs to perform and present symptoms and the level of risk that may cause to the patient and other people around (REF). In order to understand a person’s mental health situation, there are guidelines an clinician or a mental health care provider needs to follow. One of many assessment tools includes â€Å"PAMSGOTJIMI†, abbreviation of: Perception, Affect, Mood, Speech, General Behaviour, Orientation, Thought, Judgment, Insight, Memory, and Intelligence. Or even â€Å"ABCT†, abbreviated for Appearance, Behaviour, Cognition and Thought process (REF). Are great for mental health assessment of a client which needs to undergo a treatment plan, by following these guidelines a nurse can understand and develop a better understanding of a client’s current situation in order to create the right p lan. A compliant cycle of antipsychotic medications plays an important part in the treatment of schizophrenia and at the same time non-compliance with the medications can result in relapse. This is why along side of Antipsychotic medications is the need for social interventions, including education and support for patients and carers, so that cares and individuals are on the same pages of understanding one another better. Social skills training and the care provided by day hospitals and centres such as community based voluntary and involuntary services etc (REF). Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can help patients gain a degree of control over their symptoms as this helps them by understanding the links between their thought processes and subsequent behaviour. Which then helps them to move on and look at ways of changing and managing their thoughts and behaviours (REF). Family interventions largely help in reducing levels of stress and in the management of contributing factors to patient relapse (REF). As we know our families are the closest people we have got in our lives, which in return gives the individuals a sense of security and makes them feel secure by having family help them through tough time gives them the hope and strength to improve their wellbeing. Giving carers information about schizophrenia is helpful in its management. Support and information needs to be ongoing, both in everyday situations and also at times of crisis (REF). As mentioned before, carers and families have always played an important role in the management of people with very serious mental disorders. With the increasing focus on maintaining patients in the community as well as in acute settings, these roles are assuming to achieve high importance. This means that Ben’s carers’ needs and concerns require are most likely to be on a higher level of attention. In order to achieve and target the correct procedure, there are a few simple actions that can be taken for instance, a need for further and ongoing education on schizophrenia for Ben and its management and interventions as a carer or family needs to be informed about in order to look out for in various situations (REF). Regular contact with clinical teams that offers both support and advice about the patient and is responsive to carers concerns (REF). Also a faculty or services of support for carers, as they can possibly go through their own feelings such as emotional burden because they feel that its an extra responsibility to look after a mentally challenged person. Guilt and frustration is also another where the carer or family feels that nothing is working and may feel like giving up. Such services can be provided through support groups or individually. Also there is a need for a service that works in partnership with the carers and patients both, and through this way, it will be optimising the patients care and allowing patients to continue living in the community (REF). Anyone undergoing an illness is not one of the greatest feelings to be going through, which is why it is very important to understand the cause, and the reasoning behind the problem. Followed by an thorough assessment by the right health care providers. As well as having solid treatment plan with goals those need to be achieved by the end of it all. Ben is young and by having support around him, from family and friends and services provided by hospitals or community facilities is the right way to improve his mental wellbeing. With the right techniques and action plans clients like Ben can rapidly improve their mental and physical wellbeing, and as a nurse, it’s very important to understand the basic needs and requirements of each client and the correct form of assessment is highly necessary in order to keep a record of each patients history of improvements and development.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Reflective Essay: Alice in Wonderland -- Charles Lutwidge Dodgson Lewi

There and back again with Alice I gasp my hands on my knees, bent over, out of breath. I can feel my lungs compressing and pushing hard against my chest in an effort to fit just a little more air. My palms are wet, beads of sweat trickle down my forehead, making my hair feel wet and sticky. My shirt is drenched in sweat. I stare at the ground and see the stalks of grass, standing tall like trees to the tiny ants that scurry among them. What I must look like to those minuscule creatures, like a giant, so big that I block the blazing sun and give them shade. I wonder if they are afraid of me? I lift my eyes and glance ahead. I’m almost there, only a couple more meters. I hear footsteps behind me, they’re catching up quickly. It’s now or never. I push off with my back foot and go into a sprint. My heart speeds up, almost as fast as I’m running and I can hear its pounding in my head, like a prisoner beating on locked doors, wanting to be free. If it had feet of it’s own it might run alongside me and race me to the fort, but that’s silly, hearts don’t have feet. I swing my arms back and forth to help me run faster and I try to take longer strides. I’m running so fast now, I feel like everything around me is standing still, as if I’m the only thing in the world that is moving. I don’t want to stop running, I want to keep going, faster and faster, forever. Now I understand why my heart pounds so hard, why it tries to push out of my chest and run on its little feet and never stop, never look back. But I canno t keep on running forever, I have to stop. My legs finally give in and I plop onto the stiff ground. The dust sticks to my sweaty clothes and turns into mud. I take big, loud breaths but I cannot hear myself because my heart is sti... a scientific experiment. Everything is set to provide you with the perfect living conditions, the right amount of food, water, the right temperature, etc. And while you’re in that perfect, controlled environment you feel safe, you feel happy and yet, somewhere lingering in the depths of your mind is the gnawing sensation that at any given moment someone will unscrew the lid on your jar and let in the wrong air, that you will be forced to wake up from your perfect world and dragged, kicking and screaming into the world that everyone else lives in. That is my fear. That I will wake up one day and not be able to return to the world in my dreams but that I will have to learn to survive in the real world. Much like the adventuresome Alice, my wish is to live somewhere between the non fiction and fantasy of daily life, to allow the lines to be blurry. But how blurry?

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Underworld and Morality in Vergils Aeneid Essay -- Aeneid Essays

The Underworld and Morality in Vergil's Aeneid Book IV of the Aeneid can stand alone as Vergil's highest literary achievement, but centered in the epic, it provides a base for the entire work. The book describes Aeneas's trip through the underworld, where after passing through the depths of hell, he reaches his father Anchises in the land of Elysium. Elysium is where the "Soul[s] to which Fate owes Another flesh" lie (115). Here Anchises delivers the prophecy of Rome to Aeneis. He is shown the great souls that will one day occupy the bodies of Rome's leaders. Before the prophecy of Rome is delivered, Aeneis's journey through the underworld provides a definite ranking of souls according to their past lives on Earth. The Aeneid does not encompass a heaven, but the Underworld provides a punishment place where souls are purged of their evils and after one thousand years, regenerated to Earth. The ranking of souls in the Underworld warns of punishment for sin, and provides a moral framework for Roman life. Aeneis's first contact with a soul in the purgatory of the Underworld is Palinurus, who died after falling from one of Aeneis's ships. Aeneis is at the mouth of the river that flows through hell with his guide the goddess Diephobe and Charon the ferryman. Palinurus is waiting to be ferried to his place in the Underworld, so he can begin his thousand-year purge. He pleads with Aeneis's party to take him along, but Deiphobe scolds him: "Shalt thou, unburied, see the Stygian flood, / The Furies stream, or reach the bank unbid?" (107). In Vergil's Underworld one must have had a proper burial to gain a position. This serves as a warning to Romans to give their deceased a proper funeral, less they remain in hell longer. After Pa... ...ere he meets his father and receives the destiny of Rome. Elysium houses those souls "to which fate owes another flesh" (115). These are the great heroes of the Ancient World that will be reincarnated as Roman leaders: They have no human acts to be punished for. The story shifts here from that of moral lesson, to historical prophecy, but underlying the history there is a subtle command of respect for Roman leaders. The Underworld is more then just a creation to make Aeneis's voyage to his father more poetic. Through it, Vergil creates a moral code for his people, emphasizing grayer acts that can be easily justified such as deciding not to raise a child and giving up on love. Vergil saw how these acts hurt humanity, and created the Underworld to curve them. Bibliography Vergil. Aeneid. Dover Thrift Edition. Trans. Charles J. Billson. New York: Dover, 1995.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Csr in Sme

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SMES (Small and Medium Enterprises) THE LITERATURE REVIEW The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been increasing rapidly over the past few years (Crawford and Scaletta, 2005) although meaning of the term CSR remains a subject of much debate (Roberts, 2003; Hopkins, 2003). The reason behind the debate is that the beliefs and attitudes on the nature of CSR have varied over time (Hill et al. , 2003). However, according to European Commission’s Green Paper on CSR (2001), CSR is a concept whereby the companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their daily business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. On the other hand, CSR can also be understood as the business contribution to sustainable development (EC, 2002). Regardless the definitions, CSR is all about effectively managing the relationships that can affect the business and taking responsibility for the consequences that running the business has on society (Mallen Baker, 2008). Again, the arguments so far shows that all organizations have an impact on society and the environment through their operations, products and services and through their interaction with key stakeholders and therefore CSR is important in all firms, large and small (Williams, 2005; Hopkins, 2003; Roche, 2002). But it seems that less research have been made regarding the engagement of CSR in SME (Vyakarnam et al. , 1997; Schaper and Savery, 2004; Perrini et al. , 2006; Spence et al. , 2000). This literature review has been prepared with the aim of clarifying the engagement of CSR in SMEs. Small and Medium Enterprises as defined by DTI and EU are those organizations with a turnover of under 40 million Euros (? 27 million) and either has employees below 250 or over 25% owner-managed is proven to be important both numerically and economically since the last couple of decades (Jenkins H. , 2004). According to the research conducted by UNIDO (2002), SMEs make up over 90 per cent of businesses worldwide and account for between 50 and 60 per cent of employment. Similarly, a recent research suggests that SMEs (Small & Medium Enterprises) in the UK may make a social contribution worth up to ? 3bn each year – about ten times that of large corporations (BITC, 2002) which proves their equal importance like companies. *Unlike in large organizations, the ownership and management of small organizations seems to be more closely related (Spence and Rutherfoord, 2001). Thus, control remains in the hands of one of the owners, potentially enabling him or her to make personal choices about the allocation of resources (Spence, 1999). As described by Burns, 2001 small businesses are like social entities that revolve around personal relationships, which are often short of cash, likely to operate in a single market, who find it difficult to diversify business risk and are vulnerable to the loss of customers. Thus, in SMEs, the acceptance of CSR is largely a factor of the personal attitudes of the owner/manager (Hopkins, 2003; Perez-Sanchez, 2003). Improved image and reputation. Improved trust and understanding. Better market position. More business. Increased employee motivation. Increased attractiveness to potential recruits. Cost savings and increased efficiency. Risk management The overwhelming motivating factor for SMEs to engage in CSR is not external pressure but an internal drive to ‘doing the right thing’ or ‘putting something back’ or showing ‘entrepreneurial spirit’(Jenkins H. , 2001). *However, from the viewpoint of SMEs, CSR means to pay attention toward social and environmental responsibility (Southwell, 2004). Similarly, Grayson (2005) suggests that, researchers and practitioners should recognize that lots of small firms are already doing things that benefits society, but those are not described as CSR. Another important element in the field of CSR research is stakeholder theory. There is an inherent acceptance that all business has stakeholders and appropriate management of which can help reduce risk and improve all companies’ social responsibility (European Commission and Observatory of European SMEs, 2002; Irwin, 2002). However, stakeholder research has tended to focus on â€Å"corporation† or large company. But the nature of stakeholder relationship for SMEs may not be drastically different (Jenkins, 2004). Stakeholder relationships for an SME may be based on a more informal, trusting basis and characterized by intuitive and personal engagement with less of a gap between the relative power and influence of company and stakeholder; whilst large companies are far more likely to engage in carefully planned, formal strategic stakeholder management (Jenkins, 2004). Thus, SMEs approach to CSR is likely to influence according to the way they manage their key stakeholder. Brussels, 2001, Green Paper for Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility, Commission of the European Communities, COM (2001)366 final, p. 6. Burns, P. 2001, Entrepreneurs hip and Small Business, Hampshire: Palgrave. Business in the Community (BITC), 2002, â€Å"_Engaging SMEs in community and social issues_†. Cohen, A. P. , 1985, The_ Symbolic Construction of Community, _London: Routledge. EC and Observatory of European SMEs, (2002), ‘‘_European SMEs and Social and Environmental Res ponsibility_†, No. 4, Enterprise publication, p. 12. Fuller, T. : 2003, ‘Small Business Futures in Society’, Futures 35 (4), 297-304. Hill, R. , Stephens, D. and Smith, I. (2003), ‘‘Corporate social responsibility: an examination of individual firm behaviour’’, Business and Society Review, Vol. 08 No. 3, pp. 339-64. Irwin, D. , 2002, Encouraging Responsible Business, Small Business Service, London. Jenkins, H. (2004), â€Å"A Critique of Convectional CSR Theory: An SME Perspective†, Journal of General Management, Vol. 29 No. 4. Pp. 37-57. Mallen Baker, (2008), â€Å"Arguments against corporate social responsibility – redoubled†, Business Respect, 26 October, Issue Number 139. Perez-Sanchez, D. (2003), ‘‘Implementing environmental management in SMEs’’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 67-77. Perrini, F. , Russo, A. and Tencati, A. 2006), ‘à ¢â‚¬ËœSMEs and CSR theory: evidence and implications from an Italian perspective’’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 67 No. 3, pp. 305-16. Roberts, S. (2003), ‘‘Supply chain specific? Understanding the patchy success of ethical sourcing initiatives’’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 44 Nos 2/3, pp. 159-70. Roche, J. (2002), ‘‘CSR and SMEs: chalk and cheese? ’’, Ethical Corporation, Vol. 9, pp. 18-19. Sarbutts, N. (2003), ‘‘Can SMEs ‘do’ CSR? A practitioner’s view of the ways small and medium sized enterprises are able to manage reputation through corporate social responsibility’’, Journal of Communication Management, Vol. No. 4, pp. 340-7. Schaper, M. and Savery, L. (2004), ‘‘Entrepreneurship and philanthropy: the case of small Australian firms’’, Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 239-50. Southwell, c. : 2004, ‘Enga ging SMEs in community and Social Issues’, in L. J. Spencer, A. Habisch and R. Schimidpeter (eds. ), Responsibility and Social Capital: The world of small and medium sized enterprises (Palgrave MacMillan, Hampshire), pp. 96-111. Spence, L. (1999), ‘‘Does size matter? The state of the art in small business ethics’’, _Business Ethics: A European Review_, Vol. No. 3, pp. 163-72. Spence, L. and Lozano, J. (2000), ‘‘Communicating about ethics with small firms: experiences from the UK and Spain’’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 27 Nos 1/2, pp. 43-53. Spence, L. and Rutherfoord, R. (2001), ‘‘Social responsibility, profit maximisation and the small firm owner-manager’’, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 126-39. Tilley, F. , P. Hooper and L. Walley: 2003, â€Å"Sustainability and Competitiveness: Are there Mutual Advantages for SMEs? †, in O. Jones and F. Tilley (eds. ,_ Competitive Advantage in SMEs: Organising for Innovation and Change,_ pp. 71-84. Vives, A. (2006), ‘‘Social and environmental responsibility in small and medium enterprises in Latin America’’, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, Vol. 21, pp. 39-50. Vyakarnam, S. , Bailey, A. , Myers, A. and Burnett, D. (1997), ‘‘Towards an understanding of ethical behaviour in small firms’’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 16 No. 15, pp. 1625-36. Williams, A. (2005), ‘‘Consumer social responsibility? ’’, Consumer Policy Review, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 34-5.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

“A Separate Peace” by John Knowles Essay

One of the major themes in A Separate Peace is the coming of age. The theme of maturity can be viewed as a growing realization of the war in the school (in which the students realize that they have to enlist into the war â€Å"as men†), or the private and interior crisis one goes through (such as Gene discovering his identity as the novel progresses). The training and the sudden labors that the Devon students engage in attempt to prepare the boys for their future at the war; this can be seen as the external view of maturity in the novel, whereas the â€Å"internal† view of maturity can be seen in Gene’s thoughts as he searches for his personal identity. Throughout the novel, both Gene and Finny experience important yet damaging issues in their life where they realize the need to face the reality of it or become lost forever. As Gene discovers in the end, true identity can only be reached through maturity. Gene and the students of Devon experience a sense of maturity through the sudden change in their once peaceful and war-shunning environment of the summer. In the beginning of the novel, we can see that Devon is like a â€Å"Garden of Eden†; it resembles a paradise in the center of all the wars and deaths that are happening outside Devon’s barriers. Devon is seen as a milieu within a larger milieu (the rest of America at war). It seems that the students have lived their summer in a peaceful bubble of â€Å"Eden† in contrast with the background of World War II in the rest of the world. The summer of 1942 at Devon can be symbolized as the time of freedom and the exposure of youth; this is a moment in the novel where the students can get away with breaking rules and skipping classes. Therefore, the carefree summer of 1942 represents a time of paradise, where everyone is at peace and simply enjoying life at its fullest. However, Finny’s symbolic â€Å"fall† seems to have brought an end to this delight at Devon and brings in the winter session, where there is labour, orders, discipline, darkness, and despair. This is the moment when the teachers of Devon realize that the students are just on their way of serving the army. The students begin to participate in drills and trips to the railroad and orchard to help out in every way they can. In contrast to the summer of Devon, the winter represents the burdens of maturity and adulthood, and a  time where preparation of the war replaces the joyful atmosphere that was present in the summer. The boys of Devon suddenly feel that they must be responsible and â€Å"established† in order to face whatever their future brings them in the war. They all realize that they must smarten up and become men, because it is time to face the reality of what is going on behind Devon’s peaceful barriers. The phrase â€Å"Innocence must be killed to give birth to experience† says a lot about this time in the novel. Though the teachers had given the students more freedom during the summer and allowed several rule-breakings to take place, they understand that in order for the students to be ready and prepared for the coming conflicts in the army they must stop acting like children and sacrifice their state of immaturity to gain knowledge as adults. They understand that children cannot survive in wars, but men can. Later, the students realize that they must enlist themselves to serve for the army within a short period of time. Most of them become excited about becoming a solider for army, but then the novel takes an ironic twist with the students’ beliefs of the war because they do not yet know the real dangers and certainties of the outside of the barriers of Devon (regarding the world war). An example of such â€Å"blind thinking† was Leper becoming the first to join the war, thinking that he will gain more time in the forest afterwards, but returns devastated and emotionally shattered. His confrontation with Gene proves that there is a war out there and it is horrible as well. Gene, after realizing that he may also suffer from the same mental state as Leper if he enlisted, runs away screaming, â€Å"Shut up; it has nothing to do with me so shut up!†. Here we can see that Gene realizes some truth about the war, and no matter how much he tries to deny the horrible details and evidences that Leper brings back from the outside of Devon he gains new insight and wisdom. It is in this sense as well that Gene matures through the pressures of the war in the background, and that he cannot run from it because it is reality and he has to face it when it is his turn to enlist. The presence of the war, in a sense, also serves as a background for the  emotional development of the students at Devon; the world war actually triggers the buried emotions of the boys. Gene, Finny, and Brinker (for example) become competitive in their own ways; Gene compares his academic standards with Finny’s natural talents for sports, Finny shows a â€Å"win-win† competitive nature towards Gene in the games that they have played together (though he is out of the â€Å"war† mentally)), and Brinker feels insecure about his popularity due to Finny. Each character feels unconfident and is therefore â€Å"at war† with himself. In this novel, the ability to fix these inner conflicts seems to sadly result in either death (like Finny), or insanity (like Leper). For Finny, since he is unable to face certain feelings, he ends up becoming upset at the mock trial and dies in the second accident. Leper, on the other hand, believed that by enlisting first would b ring him out from his loneliness, yet returns from the war in a far worse shape. Gene, however, goes through a more painful process by remaining in Devon to fight for salvation within himself. Because the view of maturity in an emotional development is mostly seen in Gene (as narrator, we could see his thought-process as the novel progresses), I will use his private conflicts as an example to further support my thesis. In the beginning of the book, Gene develops a close relationship with Finny, his roommate. However, Gene begins to feel a bit envious of Finny, and sees his way of thinking as the truth. This then lead to an inner conflict in Gene, in which he begins to compare himself with Finny in a â€Å"Win-Lose† way of thinking. As his thinking of â€Å"competition† continues, Gene begins to see certain â€Å"flaws† within himself that leads to his insecurity, though these â€Å"missing traits† are not really flaws. He does tend to â€Å"hold himself back† several times by repeatedly telling himself how lucky he is to have Finny as a best friend, but this excuse soon shatters because he remains selfish. This selfishness of him reveals itself in chapter three, where Finny practically saves Gene from falling, but Gene tries to protect his beliefs of â€Å"Finny being the enemy† by telling himself that it was Finny’s fault for getting him into the me ss in the first place. At the same time, Gene’s admiration for Finny’s personality prevents him from refusing to go out with  Finny; it is in this state that Gene is actually a confused young man, who does not know the true value of friendship, and cannot correct the jealousy that he feels for Finny. The jealousy continues to grow, and soon enough Gene jounces the limb in chapter five, resulting in Finny’s fall. As I have said before, Gene is then forced to review what he has done to Finny and take a good look at himself; his mind, feeling extremely guilty for his actions, pressures him so much about the accident that he is forced to grow up. We see the final stage of maturity in Gene when he realizes near the end of the novel that he needs to become a grown-up and confront his personal war face-to-face once and for all; he confesses to Finny about his part in the accident, and finally gains Finny’s forgiveness and a sense of salvation. It was in this confession that Gene is f orced to see his stupidity and selfishness behind some of his actions. His act of courage to go to Finny and confess is evidence that he has finally grown. The conflict that he feels inside (regarding his relationship with Finny) becomes the source of his final emotional development; because of the â€Å"accident† the he had committed against Finny’s fall, Gene is forced to examine his own feelings over and over again throughout the novel. This repeated painful examination of his feelings and guilt results in growth; by really looking in himself, Gene realizes that he has to be responsible for his actions. It is when Gene finally reaches his peak of maturity that he begins to see his true identity in the end of the novel. Gene has emerged from a sort of shyness into a more confident attitude; he was influenced by Finny to learn about people, events, and life in a way that he had never before. In short, Gene needed Finny in order to realize himself. And sadly, Finny’s death leads to the eulogy that Gene makes in the last chapter, where he remembers the lessons that he was taught during his personal war at Devon. The theme of maturity in A Separate Peace can be reflected from the pressures that Gene (and the others students) endures during the drills, labors, and strict rules at Devon; this can be categorized as the â€Å"external† features of the theme, as well as the background of the novel. However, the theme of coming to age can also be seen in Gene’s heart, as he participates in an emotional struggle within himself prior to Finny’s character. We can see that Gene becomes jealous and envious of Finny, but then there seems to be a development in his character as he slowly begins to realize the truth. In a sense, Gene reaches maturity and becomes an adult after Finny dies, as he realizes that his own enemy was not Finny but his ignorant heart. Both the external and internal features of maturity in this novel gives meaning to the phrase, â€Å"Innocence must be killed to give birth to experience†; the students had to leave their peaceful state in the summer of 1942 and began to get used to the rigors of war and labor to fully understand the realities of war; at the same time, if Finny had not suffered and eventually died in the end, Gene would not have reflected on himself and grow from his experiences in the past. As Gene discovered in the end, true identity can only be reached through a state of maturity. â€Å"A Separate Peace† By John Knowles Essay In â€Å"A Separate Peace† by John Knowles, it is evident that Finny and Leper undergo the most traumatic experiences from the Class of 1943. Through these experiences, both characters lose much of their innocence and naivety. Finny, upon learning of the existence of the war and Gene’s moment of hatred, learns to accept realities and perceive the world as it is, not as the perfect childlike image he wants it to be. However, when Leper enlists in the army, he quickly begins to have hallucinations because the reality is too much for him to handle. Nevertheless, he eventually overcomes his insanity and seems to be fairly mentally stable by the end of the novel. Although Finny and Leper’s traumas are the source of a major loss of purity and childhood, they are also the cause of post-tramautic growth and a necessary increase in maturity. Finny goes through several perception-changing events during the course of the novel, but the event that cements his departure from childhood is the acceptance that Gene deliberately shook Finny off the tree. This shock was caused by his own inability to accept the truth in the first place. Despite the ease of denying unwanted information and living in a dream world, it is mentally unhealthy for Finny because of the shock caused upon finally believing the truth. Immediately after Gene’s confession of jouncing the limb, Gene remarks that Finny looked â€Å"older than I had ever seen him† (62). Finny, however, does not yet comprehend feelings of jealousy and betrayal, as he has hardly had any himself and finds it difficult to think of another’s point of view; the information registers on his face, but before he has time to process it and mature he rejects the idea entirely. Gene states â€Å"it occurred to me that this could be an even deeper injury than what I ha d done before† (62). The reality of adult themes such as jealousy, betrayal, and hate is what hurts Finny most, not the crippling injury itself. Another reality that takes away from Finny’s nescience is the war (when he finally believes in its existence). The most dramatic and stunning war in recent history, World War II had a huge impact on millions of lives worldwide. Yet Phineas refused to believe in the war, and instead created a fantasy in which he was the one of the only people who knew that it was all a hoax. When Gene, in disbelief from Finny’s opinion, questions Finny on why he is the only person who is aware of the â€Å"stuffed shirts'† (107) plot to  suppress happiness, Finny emotionally bursts out it is because he has â€Å"suffered† (108). Apparently, Finny has visualized this hoax to shield himself from the disadvantages of his disability, such as enlisting. Nevertheless, Finny quickly accepts the truth of the war after seeing Leper in a mentally disturbed state of mind. The image of what the war did to someone who used to be close to him shook him out of his dream world and spurred his emotional growth. When Finny, at the end of the novel, learned to accept the realities and avoid using denial to cope with shock, he lost the last of his childhood innocence. Leper is easily one of the most naive and innocent characters during the Summer Session. His good-naturedness and passive fascination with nature is such an ideal image of innocence that it seems almost depressing to see him in the traumatized state of mind after enlisting. Even while everyone is volunteering to shovel snow to aid the war effort and discussing their plans for which division to enlist in, Leper is only concerned with the beauty of nature and skis to a beaver dam to watch the beavers develop and build their dam. He is moved to join the army not for vain images of glory and glamor like the other students, but rather for the beauty of skiing down a mountain. Obviously, he soon finds that the army is too much for him, and while absent from the ongoings at Devon he loses every shred of innocence and guilelessness that previously surrounded his character. When Gene meets him, his psyche is obviously changed to such a point that he has hallucinations and other symptoms of sc hizophrenia, caused by his rapid ascension into adult matters. He does not accept reality nearly as well as Finny does because his character was far more innocuous at the start of the novel. So many of his images of the world are shattered that it can be seen that he feels like he has little familiarity to hold onto. He grasps to every gleam of regularity and unchangeable function, which explains his preference for spending time in the dining room of his house simply because he knows that three daily meals will be served there on a consistent basis. However, his time at home seems to have given him time to cope with the images of adulthood. Upon his return to Devon, he seems mentally well and a much more decisive authority than ever before. He accurately and forcefully convicts Gene of jouncing the limb in â€Å"his new, confident†¦ voice† (166).  Gene describes Leper during the trial as â€Å"all energy† (165). Evidently, Leper has dealt with the loss of innocence caused by his abrupt initiation into adulthood and has becom e a more confident, self-assured person in spite of it. Knowles makes it apparent throughout A Separate Peace that while the loss of innocence may often seem to be a sad or tragic event, it is necessary to pave the way for maturation and a transition into adulthood. Had Finny never accepted the truth of the tragedy that occurred to him, he would have never matured beyond his carefree summer days. And had Leper kept living in his own world of vivid imaginations, he would have never developed into the sanguine individual he becomes at the end of the novel. While the loss of innocence is partly a lugubrious experience, John Knowles portrays it as a necessity – a part of maturation and growth that leads to adulthood and self-fulfillment.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Jihad Vs McWorld Essay

In nature, there are always at least two forces acting on each other. They either tend to be always in opposition to one another to ultimately destroy the other or to create a new force that is a mixture of elements coming from each of the present forces. In society, Benjamin Barber identified two forces or tendencies, given the political and economic trends at the time of his writing, which may come in to being and could pose a threat to democracy as we know it: tribalism and globalism. At the present time, â€Å"Jihad Vs. McWorld† offers a good retrospective view of things that had just recently occurred. Students of history are offered a good summary of how things were going at the end of the last century and how these could possibly come out, if it had not yet turned out to be so, today, and a possible means of securing democracy that can withstand the forces of McWorld and Jihad. As a political theorist, Barber offers some insights of the trends that were going on in the 1990s and as well as some factors that are inextricably linked to these trends. These trends, McWorld and Jihad, he described as both being undemocratic in its effects to the citizenry. In McWorld, he talks of the â€Å"four imperatives† that govern its dynamics. Market imperative, resource imperative, information-technology imperative and ecological imperative, according to Barber, make up the working guidelines that govern the dynamics of McWorld. Personally, it may seem a bit far-reaching to talk about these imperatives verging on generalities, but then again he is trying to clarify a concept that is in operation in a big world and that because of these imperatives such a big world in ever shrinking smaller with the passing of each day. In Jihad, he talks of the struggles of people based on ethnic, racial, cultural, and religious differences whose final aim is â€Å"to redraw boundaries†¦ [and] escape McWorld’s dully insistent imperatives. † At first reading, it may be quite surprising that these same reasons for which minorities struggle to be recognized within existing national boundaries are claimed to be the self-same reasons for which nations were born; nations composed of various groups of people with many differing aspects but with at least one common feature that became the focal point of their unification in the past after the break up of empires. This initial surprise can probably be overcome if one looks at the latter concept as a case of self-determination against a colonial master and the former as a case for self-identification. For both McWorld and Jihad, Barber paints grim pictures if in case one of the two takes the upper hand over the other and it really does not matter which wins in the end for both have undemocratic tendencies. McWorld is said to offer peace and prosperity and relative unity while Jihad brings forth a sense of community, kinship and solidarity. Seemingly, the offerings to the citizenry of McWorld and Jihad are mutually exclusive. One might not have a slice of McWorld and another slice of Jihad at the same time. McWorld hinges on interdependence while Jihad is based on exclusion. But Barber offer a middle ground for which the economic benefits of McWorld can be availed of while maintaining the exclusionist ideal of Jihad. He offers a representative confederal government as an ideal solution to address the excesses of both McWorld and Jihad; a form of â€Å"decentralized participatory democracy,† that has some elements of parochialism, communitarianism and participatory governance. Barber argues that, after all as a tree grows from the roots going upward, democracy starts from the bottom up and not from the top going down. This view I share with Barber. People compose nations and it is essential, I believe, that the ideal principles of self-determination and government be well laid out and understood by this self-same people so as to avoid the excesses of Jihad and McWorld or at least minimize them. The discussions of Barber in Jihad Vs. McWorld creates a dark picture that sometimes we could not easily accept that we could even dismiss it as a far-reaching generalization of the trends of the time that would eventually dissipate. But the beauty of this essay lies in the fact that it came at a time when the events that he was discussing were but recent and may have been witnessed first-hand by those among us right now. We could easily ascertain the accuracy and veracity of his claims from other resources or even from our own memories, if it is sufficient enough (i. . had we been born a few years before or within the years of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Quebecois unrest, etc. ). Furthermore, the solution that he proposes is something that is not totally radical and would pose as a mild readjustment of the current system of have now. Students of history, both those studying it in the halls of learning and those studying it in the realm of wide world, can benefit greatly from this work by Barber. In exposing the excesses of McWorld and Jihad, he did not indulge in radical rhetoric and offered a middle ground solution that could take in the best of both worlds, so to speak. He leaves the reader the choice whether to adopt his proposal or at least gives room for others to expose a better one than his, after all this is the very essence of the democracy that he espouses. It may take time to reap the benefits of finding or adopting a middle-ground solution of Jihad and McWorld and could not be rushed. Moderation is the key and haste is an invisible wall. In the end, the tortoise has always won over the hare.