Sunday, January 26, 2020

Implementing IMC at lower levels of theoretical models

Implementing IMC at lower levels of theoretical models This report is about the use of Integrated Marketing Communications in the marketing industry, in particular focusing on the various definitions that exist for IMC. My report also investigates why organisations choose not to approach IMC or if they do why they appear to only implement it at the lower levels of the theoretical models and not take it further. I will do this by discussing IMC in a variety of ways and looking at organisations as examples, whilst considering many academics views on IMC and its future from the many journals I have read. Integrated Marketing Communications is the integration of all marketing communication tools and sources from within a company put in conjunction in order to create a campaign that maximizes the impact on consumers with minimal cost. The marketing communications mix is the starting point of IMC and the end aim to achieve is to maintain strong communication throughout the company and customers. The marketing mix consists of the following tools advertising, direct marketing, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. The goal is to combine all these tools along with the organisations message and other aspects of the marketing mix, in order to overtake any competitors. The definitional concern of IMC has been an ongoing problem amongst the academics. There are a range of various definitions some of which are contrasting, although even those with similar points vary hugely in terms of technique and simplicity. Schulz and Schulz (1998) introduced a new definition which in the opinions of others includes both the current and future features of IMC. This definition emphasises the strategic aspects and refers to IMC as a business process instead of simply the combining of marketing tools. Although this definition is successful Kliatchko believed that for it to be complete it must not limit the scope of IMC to the strategic management of multiple audiences or markets, multiple channels and financial results, as it is therefore leaving out crucial content which is obtained and delivered through the IMC process. Although it could be argued that this is implied in the term marketing communication, Kliatchko felt it was important to be stated also. This new definition also implements the term business process which was previously introduced by Schultz and Schultz (1998). Kliatchko (2005) agrees tremendously with this term and explains that it perfectly describes the core of integration. In addition it also supports the findings of Jones et al. (2004) and Fill (2002) that IMC has advanced from purely being a communication process to a management process. IMC is an audience-driven business process of strategically managing stakeholders, content, channels and results of brand communication programs Kliatchko (2008). One key difference between Kliatchko and the Schultz and Schultz (1998) definition is the use of the term business processes, Kliatchko highlights how it is audience driven on order to reinforce the view that IMC gives to significant publics. Fill concentrates on the relationship with audiences, IMC is a strategic approach to the planned management of an organisations communications. IMC requires that organisations coordinate their various strategies, resources and messages in order that it engages coherently and meaningfully with target audiences. The main purpose is to develop relationships with audiences that are of mutual value (Fill 2005). Whereas Kotler (2003) focuses on how the market is perceived by the public a way of looking at the whole marketing process from the view point from the viewpoint of the customer. There are then extremely opposing viewpoints such as that made by Cornelissen and Lock (2000) that IMC is just a short term management fashion. The concept of integrated marketing communications has become an essential part of the market in terms of communication strategies for companies however due to the definition constantly changing it prevents IMC being developed and understood to a full extent. The changes that have taken place over recent years have highlighted the capability of the current marketing practices. It is viewed that there is a need for change if any future challenges are going to be met. The momentum for this adaptation in the industry has almost certainly been strongest in the larger fast moving consumer orientated organisations. There is no doubt that integrated marketing communication is not easily achieved, and can therefore lead to failure, however when practiced correctly it can have extremely successful results. IMC is a significant and essential theme (Cornelissen and Lock 2001) for a variety of reasons, it is just crucial to consider both the advantages and the barriers. Integrated Marketing Communications involves a great deal of work, although when this effort is put in it brings achievement. It gives the company an edge over their competition which leads to an increase in profit, whilst in the long run it saves money and time due to the planning. IMC has been defined by Kotler (1996) as a technique to produce more consistent and successful communications throughout a whole company. The main benefit of IMC will be to achieve the desired goal of marketing communications by an individual organisation, however well known academics have developed their own lists of specific advantages to using IMC. Linton and Morleys (1995) ten potential benefits of integrated marketing communications are shown below. Creative Integrity Operational efficiency Consistent messages Cost Savings Unbiased marketing recommendations High- Calibre consistent service Better use of Media Easier working relations Greater Marketing Position Greater agency accountability Fig 1.1 (Linton and Morley) Linton and Morley demonstrate ten advantages of the use of IMC here, which gives a guideline to why IMC is to be encouraged and how it will benefit organisations, however some of the points are fairly vague and may be misinterpreted for example unbiased marketing recommendations. Fill (2006) on the other hand only lists eight, but both sets of lists include similar points which demonstrate how confident some academics are in the advantages of IMC. According to Kuczynski (1992), success of integration occurs with consistency in particular in the companys message. Tynan (1994) also believes this and goes on to explain that for IMC to be achieved not only is it through media being combined but he reiterates the importance of the consumer receiving one clear message. A comprehensible message has much more of an impact and will stand out in the mind of a customer over the hundreds of other adverts that surround an individual every day. Un-integrated communications will develop inconsistent messages which will make them less credible. Duncan and Everett (1993) also consider that consistency in the marketing communication elements will prevent any impending conflicts. IMC also incorporates all the various communications in order for the customer to progress through the steps of the buying process and cultivates the relationship with the customers. This relationship ensures a sense of brand loyalty and consumers will therefore feel safer with this particular brand and therefore remain with them. This ability of accomplishing a customer for life is a very strong advantage over competitors. Duncan and Everett (1993) believe that IMC leads to a decrease in media waste and therefore the company gains this competitive edge. This was also reinforced by Linton and Morleys (1995) ten potential benefits. Organisations have identified that it is becoming increasingly harder to maintain consumers loyalty, which is why integrated marketing communications is important in a technique to gain advantage over any competitors. Regardless of huge investments these complicated relationships between a business multiple marketing comms. are not completely understood. Re search shows that the positive effects of combining media for example print advertising and television looks promising and that a change is taking place. Another set of research illustrates that 20 years ago 75% of marketing budgets in America was inserted into mass advertising, whereas today 50% goes towards trade promotions, 25% into consumer promotions and only 25% into advertising, which is a huge decline of 50% (Kitchen, 2003). Money is another issue related to IMC. It saves money in the long run however many organisations do not appreciate the long term values of integrated marketing communications and therefore fail to see it as an investment. This appears to be slowly changing though due to the fact the importance of brand value is becoming more common knowledge. Tortorici suggests that one of the easiest ways to maximise its return on an investment is through the use of IMC. (Tortorici 1991) He would have suggested this for a number of reasons such as agency fees being reduced, as it becomes possible for one agency to handle all the communications, and also because it eliminates replication in various areas in the company such as logos, graphics and photography that the company intends to use. In the industrial product market, IMC frequently takes the form of personal selling with advertising. This combination was seen as beneficial due to the decrease in selling costs (Morrill 1970) and a report comple ted by the McGraw-Hill Corporation in 1987 came to the same conclusion plus the evidence that it also reduced the amount of sales calls to the industrial decision makers. One example of this is IBM, there customer contact costs decreased enormously. (Moretti 1994). Belch and Belch (2001) believe that the benefits of adopting IMC do not just stop at limiting the operating costs but an optimistic attitude and concern for the company are just as significant. Overall all of this would in actual fact reduce the workload and save money long term, however most budgets set in a company are set with only short term in consideration. Despite its many benefits, Integrated Marketing Communications has barriers to overcome just like the money issue just discussed. There are a number of other barriers that authors have identified. For example Ewing et al quoted It has been suggested that departments can develop territorialism because they do not want to change their functional standing. (Ewing et al.,1997.) Schultz also goes on to say that they may be reluctant for this change because of a lack of understanding of IMC (Schultz 1996). This could start to explain why companies do not use IMC when perhaps it would in fact be appropriate for them to. Whats more, problems with implementation and measurement have been exemplified by several authors (Eagle et al., 1998). Implementation of IMC is difficult to achieve but it also hard to distinguish where to start planning wise. It has been discussed whether promotional activities should begin by examining external factors of the customers first. Although this is clearly a barrier, it does not necessarily mean that it should discourage everyone, as practice makes perfect to reach a great outcome. Another issue that has arisen is the structure of companies which makes it difficult for integration. Organisations are generally subdivided in areas, and although joint assignments may help to break down these organisational barriers the hierarchical structures will still be an issue (Gonring 2000). Pickton and Hartley (1998) also agree with the idea that the implementation has proven exceedingly complicated due to these organisational barriers. Integrated communications has not caught on to many companies(Pettigrew 2001), for a number of reasons firstly the barriers of IMC contribute to this, however after the previous discussion there are ways to overcome the barriers and there are in fact more advantages to it so the question is why is it not being adopted. The debate of what marketing communications can accomplish has been a big question for many years (Ambler 2000). I will look at what various practitioners believe and also the main reasons why IMC has not taken off as much as it perhaps should have (Pettigrew 2001). Marketers dont generally seem to like change in regards to new investments and approach to their marketing communications due to a fear of change (Gonring 2000), which is therefore an issue in relation to adopting IMC. Although they may realise that as technology is growing the importance for companies to be organised and consistent is also increasing (Cornelissen 2003). A lack of understanding of Integrated Marketing Communications is also another factor to why IMC is highly recognised but is not necessarily chosen to be used. This shortage of knowledge must be addressed before managers are expected to use integrated marketing. This all stems from the fact that there are many different views on whether IMC is here to stay or whether it is just a fad. Cornelissen and Lock state that IMC is nothing new but only a management fad (Cornelissen and Lock 2000), this is severely disagreed with by most other practitioners who see IMC as the future for example IMC is a new brand concept for the emerging digitalised environment (Shultz and kitchen 2000). There are also so many different definitions which can make it confusing from the beginning, nevertheless with all of these reasons considered the main weakness of IMC still lies in the apparent inability of agencies to measure behavioural outcomes. This major issue of not being able to measure the effects of an integrated campaign is majorly delaying the implementation process and there is a lack of empirical studies into how it could be measured. Indicating how IMC could move into full implementation is a huge concern, measurement and evaluation corresponds to an extra cost to organisations. These organisations will have built up thorough behavioural databases of their consumers; however it would be unfair to access these unless an extremely strong relationship had been developed. Overall, it would seem that integrated marketing communications have developed greatly, but there are still many issues to overcome in order to for IMC to be completed successfully achieved in companies. It is important for this to occur as it has been defined by Chang et al.(1991) that consumers attend more to integrated marketing communication than a normal advertising campaign. One model used is the four pillars of IMC by Kliatchko; these four pillars are the elements on which IMC levels are based, they are content, channels, stakeholders and results. For full implementation of IMC, firms must use all four levels (Schultz and Schultz 1998). Although each pillar is separate there is a present of each of the four levels, just each have their own most prominent section. The end goal of Content is primarily to deliver a consistent message for utmost communication impact (Duncan Caywood 1996).The objective is therefore for the target audience (stakeholders) to receive a clear integrated message. If this desired goal is achieved then integration at the first level has been achieved. A good example of this is Haagen Dazs ice cream. They use experimental appeals to their audience which communicates a sense of fun and pleasure, which is consistent through all of other campaigns. Pillar two is all related to the channels of communication, not just in its general sense but also in the view of the customer, in order to obtain what customers prefer. This allows appropriate content to connect effectively with the audience. The ability to connect with a target audience in a way in which they prefer and deliver the message according to their terms would be successful IMC at this level. BT attempted to do this in their 1998 World Cup Football tournament. They took advantage of the football in order to make their advert more relevant and appealing to the public, this would have made it more interesting for the public who were interested in football but not for the rest of their target audience. The third pillar is applying information technology for the benefit of both the company and consumers. If the company uses IT to gain a better understanding of their customers and then they can manage databases of information. This better knowledge will allow them to obtain better relationships with consumers by combining the other pillars, more targeted messages by their preferred channels. This provides a more profitable future for the company (Schultz and Schultz 1998). Gillette Mach 3 achieved this as they produced an advert that utilised a functional appeal and communicate the brands specific attributes capable of solving consumers consumption-related problems. They therefore took into consideration what they target audience wanted to be delivered to them and how whilst making them a profit, this was successful IMC at this level. The final pillar is strategic integration and results. If a company gets to this stage of integration then they have a good understanding of the demands of integration and what is necessary. Schultz and Schultz (1998) categorise this pillar as the one that allows a company to analyse more precisely the relation between returns and investments made in the marketing communications campaign. This is why this is the fourth pillar, as it is prominently the measurement of results which as discussed earlier is extremely hard to achieve, hence why my organisations only implement IMC at the lower levels of models such as this. Another IMC model is demonstrated below and was designed by Pickton and Broderick (2000). This is a much simpler model; however it does look at how integration starts off tactical and ends up strategic. Bupas recent marketing strategy was to reposition the company and integrate its offering. The core brand proposal Bupa the personal health service was announced through a number of Medias such as TV, press, radio sponsorship and PR. The website was a huge success and played a key role in its integrated communications by offering online quotes and support. This promotion created awareness of the brand and increased their sales. The Group Marketing Director quoted we have succeeded in positioning Bupa as the only dedicated independent health care specialist in the UK. ( Marketing Business 2002) Schultz also developed seven levels of integration model. The seven levels of integration are Awareness of need for IMC the starting point of the model, realisation. Image- consistency between media. Functional Forming marketing communication programmes in order to achieve certain aims. Co-ordinated Personal selling is integrated with other elements in order to continue consistency. Personal selling is directly integrated with other elements of marketing communications to ensure consistency between impersonal and interpersonal forms of communication. Consumer-based Understanding the consumers needs and wants, this is like the second pillar of Kliatchkos model. Stakeholder- recognition of stakeholders after the final customers. Relationship management. A good example of complete IMC that could have applied the seven levels of integration is Coco Cola. It is one of the worlds most famous brand names and was given the title of leading brand recognition in 2003 by the Business week. Coca Cola represents major emotional advantages over all its competitors, whilst given the customers what they want. They are a loyal brand who creates consistent messages across their adverts and their message is always clear. They also produce spectacular adverts and have a strong brand image and logo, therefore they are incorporating lot of the seven levels of integration and it is obvious that they are doing successfully. It is clear that IMC plays a vital role in the industry and everyday more is being learnt and understood. A clearer picture of Integrated Marketing is emerging and therefore future companies will begin to adopt it and take it to further levels of the theoretical models rather than just using it at the lower levels. It was established that due to a lack of understanding, and the rest of the barriers, this is the reason why companies only implement at the lower levels. The difficulty of IMC makes organisations reluctant however in the future if it is the path they must take to develop their company then IMC will evolve. Ambler, T. (2000), Persuasion, pride and prejudice: how ads work, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 299-315. Belch, G.E. and Belch, M.A. (2001), Advertising and Promotion, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY, pp. 10, 78-79. Chang, D.-R., Hahn, M. and Ik-Tae K., (1991) Consumer Response to Coupons with Advertising in a Pretesting Context, Working Paper, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Cornelissen, J.P. and Lock, A.R. (2000), Theoretical concept or management fashion? Examining the significance of IMC, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40 No. 5, pp. 7-15. Cornelissen, J.P. and Lock, A.R. (2001), The appeal of integration: managing communications in modern organisations, Marketing Intelligence Planning, Vol. 19 No. 6, pp. 425-31. Cornelissen, J.P. (2003), Change, continuity and progress: the concept of integrated marketing communications and marketing communications practice, Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 217-34. Duncan, T. and Everett, S.E. (1993), Client perceptions of integrated marketing communications, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 33 No. 3, p. 30. Duncan, T. and Caywood, C. (1996), The Concept, Process, and Evolution of Integrated Marketing Communication, Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ. Duncan, T.R. Caywood, C.L. (1996) The concept, process, and evolution of integrated marketing communications, in Thorson, E. Moore, J. (eds) Integrated Communication: Synergy of Persuasive Voices. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 13-34. Eagle, L., Hyde, K., Fourie, W., Padisetti, M. and Kitchen, P. (1998) Revisiting the Concept of Integrated Marketing Communications: Contrasting Perceptions Between Marketers and Advertising Agency Executives, paper prepared for 3rd International Conference on Marketing and Corporate Communication, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Ewing, M. T., de Bussey, N. and Ramaseshan, B. (1997) The Power and Politics of Integrated Marketing Communications, Curtin Business School Working Paper, November, 1-18. Ewing, M.T., Du Pleiss, E. Foster, C. (2001) Cinema advertising re-considered. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(1), pp. 78-85. Fill, C. (2002) Marketing Communications: Contexts, Strategies and Applications (3rd edn). London: Prentice Hall. Fill, C. (2002), Marketing Communications, Contexts, Strategies and Applications, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall Europe, Hemel Hempstead, p. 32. Fill (2006) Lecture Slides, MKT2011. Gonring, M.P. (2000), Global megatrends push IMC concepts to forefront of strategic business thinking, Journal of Integrated Communications, Vol. 2000-2001, pp. 15-18. Holm, O. (2006), Integrated marketing communication: from tactics to strategy, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 23-33. Jerry Kliatchko. (2008). Revisiting the IMC construct: a revised definition and four pillars. International Journal of Advertising. 27 (1), 1-13 Jones, G.S., Li, T., Kitchen, P.J. Brignell, J. (2004) The emergence of IMC: a theoretical perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 44 (1), pp. 19-30. Kitchen, P.J. Schultz, D.E. (1999) A multi-country comparison of the drive for IMC. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(1), pp. 21-38 Kitchen, P.J. Schultz, D.E. (2001) Raising the Corporate Umbrella: Corporate Communication in the 21st Century. New York: Palgrave Publishers Ltd. Kliatchko, J.G. (2005) Towards a new definition of integrated marketing communications (IMC). International Journal of Advertising, 24(1), pp. 7-34. Kotler, P. (1996) Principles of Marketing, 7th edn, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Kotler, P. (2000), Marketing Management, 10th ed., Prentice-Hall International, London, p. 7, 19. Kuczynski, A. (1992) Beyond Advertising, Towards Integration, Marketing, 13, 50-53. Linton, I. And Morley, K. (1995), Integrated marketing Communications. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Marketing Business (2002), Strong Vital Signs, September 14. Moretti, P. (1994) Telemarketers Serve Clients, Business Marketing, April, 27-29. Morrill, J. E. (1970) Industrial Advertising Pays Off,Harvard Business Review, March/April, 4. Pettigrew, L.S. (2001a), If IMC is so good: why isnt it being implemented?, Journal of Integrated Communications, No. 35. Pettigrew, L.S. (2001b), If IMC is so good: why isnt it being implemented?, Journal of Integrated Communications, No. 36. Pickton, D. Hartley, B. (1998) Measuring integration: an assessment of the quality of integrated marketing communication. International Journal of Advertising, 17(4), pp. 447-465. Schultz, D.E. Schultz, H.F. (1998) Transitioning marketing communication into the twenty-first century. Journal of Marketing Communications, 4(1), pp. 9-26. Schultz, D.E. Schultz, H.F. (2005) Measuring brand value, in Tybout, A. Calkins, T. (eds) Kellog on Branding. New Jersey: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Tortorici, A. J. (1991) Maximising Marketing Communications through Horizontal and Vertical Orchestration, Public Relations Quarterly, 36, 20-22. Tynan, K. (1994) Multi-channel Marketing: MaximisingMarket Share with an Integrated Marketing Strategy,Probus, Danvers, MA.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Discuss one explanation of Personality Development and evaluate its conclusion

For this assignment I am going to discuss Freud's perspective of personality development. Freud used psychoanalytic theories that are based around the emotional development of the personality, whereas Erikson's psychosocial theory focuses more on the role of social factors in development. Personality development can be broken down into three strands within Freud's theory: the personality structure, defence mechanisms and psychosexual development. Personality can be defined as ‘ the distinctive and characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behaviour that define an individual's personal style, and influence his or her interactions with the environment'. (Atkinson et al, 1992) Freud developed his theories by psychoanalysing adults, mostly middle-aged women and individuals with personality problems. He used various methods to study his patients, such as, dream analysis; which are interpretations of individual's dreams as they are a â€Å"window on the unconscious† (Davenport, 1988), free association; where the person is given a word or a phrase and encouraged to say the first thing that enters their head and ‘slips of the tongue'; which is when a person says something in error but these can subconsciously reflect what they really mean. Freud suggests that adult personality is derived from the interaction between the desires for pleasure and how early desires were gratified. He believed that all human behaviour is controlled by drives, which he relates to human instincts. Freud insisted that there are two forces feeding our instinctual urges with energy; the Libido and the Death Instinct; the Libido being a sexual energy and the Death Instinct being more of an aggressive energy. According to Freud, the adult human mind is made up of three different parts and levels of awareness; the unconscious mind, which he named the ‘Id'; the preconscious mind, which he named the ‘Superego', and the conscious mind, which he named the ‘Ego'. The Id is at the centre of a person's very being. It is the initial part of a human's personality structure, which exists, right from birth and can be described as the most primitive instinct. This part of the personality craves satisfaction and pleasure; therefore it has been coined ‘the pleasure principle'. The Ego is known as the second part of the personality structure. This is the part of our personality that keeps us in touch with reality. Its aim is to protect us and it helps us to perform tasks safely; therefore-coined ‘the reality principle'. The Ego controls both other parts of the personality, the Id and the Superego, which help keep our lives in balance. The last part of the personality structure is the Superego. This is the part that moulds our morals and conscience. It helps prevent us from doing things, which we have learnt and know to be morally wrong; therefore this part has been coined ‘the morality principle'. The ego ideal exists as part of the superego. Rather than telling us what we should not do, the ego ideal tells us what is good and what we should do and be like. If the person has a strong superego they are more likely to have stronger morals than a person with a weak superego. Because the Id and the Superego are always conflicting against one another, the Ego needs to have strategies to reduce anxiety. This helps push problems away and in a way pretending the problems don't exist, a form of denial, these are known as defence mechanisms. Another defence mechanism is repression; this is where the Id's impulses are blocked from reaching the conscious mind. There are a number of other defence mechanisms, including projection; where unacceptable desires or characteristics are projected on to someone else, and displacement; this refers to the transfer of repressed desires or impulses onto a substitute person or object. (Mike Cardwell, 2000) Freud's contributions with his theories on defence mechanisms are still being practiced today and are experienced as valid and useful. According to Freud we acquire our personalities in several stages, known as psychosexual development. Freud thought that different parts of our bodies become particularly sensitive as we grow through these different stages; he called these areas erogenous zones. (Davenport, 1988) As children grow up and are experiencing the stages of psychosexual development, different parts of their bodies become more sensitive, first the mouth, then the anus, then the phallus, and finally the genitals. The libido seeks pleasure through these erogenous zones. The five different stages of psychosexual development are labelled as: The Oral Stage – this is the first year of a baby's life where the baby gains pleasure from sucking and biting. The Id exists here right from birth. The Anal Stage – this is around the age of one to about three years where the pleasure derives from retaining and expelling faeces. At this stage the Ego begins to develop. The Phallic Stage – this is around three until six years where the sensitivity is placed around the genitals. This is the where the Oedipal Complex or the Electra Complex unfolds. It is during this stage the Superego starts to develop. The Latency Period – this is around seven until twelve years where the body seems to have no sensitised area. A child will be more interested in interacting with other people but are not strongly attracted to others. The Genital Stage – this is around the age of 14 to 17 years. The child becomes more aware of the opposite gender and a sexual awareness is developed. The Oedipal Conflict that occurs in the Phallic Stage involves the child experiencing feelings of desire for the opposite-sex parent. The child experiences a fear that the same sex parent will find out and punish them for this, resulting in feelings of envy and the development of ‘castration anxiety'. Whilst all this is happening to the child subconsciously, they start to become more like the same sex parent adopting their characteristics to conquer the Oedipal Conflict, (known as the ‘Electra Complex' in girls). This is known as ‘Identification'. His ideas on psychosexual development are known to be quite controversial, as they seem to be overly obsessed with sexuality. Freud developed the theory that sex was a major motivational force at a time of great sexual repression. This could have caused sex to be something that was repressed in many minds (Beryard & Hayes, 1994). Freud alleges emotional disturbances that occur in adult life could be to do with poor psychosexual development. He believes that a person could be fixated at an early pleasure seeking stage of the development. This is caused if the child experiences severe problems or excessive gratification at any of the stages. The adult may display regression whereby their behaviour could become less mature and similar to behaviour displayed at the stage, which they are fixated. Freud places great importance on the roles of regression and fixation in determining personality. Freud's theories have not been without criticism, they have mostly been criticised for being unscientific. His research support seems to be rather weak as the case studies he carried out mainly consisted of adults, mostly middle-aged women, from the same culture, so the results may be biased. The only child Freud studied was Little Hans, a five-year-old boy, who suffered from a phobia. Freud's ‘evidence' for his explanation of how children's personalities grow does not come from experiments or any scientifically acceptable means of data collection. It doesn't even come from observing ‘normal' children. It comes from the dreams and spoken memory of a relatively small number of people who mostly lived in Vienna, who had some personality ‘problems'. (Davenport, 1988) Another method Freud used to analysis people was hypnosis. This was another widely criticised method, as even Freud admitted himself can be suggestive. However, despite many criticisms Freud remains known for having the most influential impact in modern psychology, especially in the areas of abnormal behaviour and psychotherapy. Today his ideas are used in everything from childcare, education, literary criticism, and psychiatry. He founded the psychoanalytic movement, which today many Neo-Freudians still actively use, although the emphasis of it is different.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Essay Main Theories of Each School of Psychology - 1085 Words

The four major Schools in psychology are Behaviourism, cognitive, psychoanalytic and biological. Many different psychologists have different assumptions and ideas about the way in which psychology developed. And the main theories of each school of psychology, will be developed further in this essay. Behaviourism was firstly introduced by John B Watson and started around 1913. It is the idea that all behaviours are learnt, and humans are subject to stimulus and response. It also suggests that humans do not possess any freewill. Behaviourists believe that mental processes should not be studied as they cannot be observed. The concept of operant conditioning was introduced by B.F Skinner. This is the idea that humans learn through†¦show more content†¦Pavlov demonstrated this by conducting an experiment on a dog where the dog eventually associates the presentation of food, with the ringing of a bell. 1 Cognitive is another school of psychology introduced by a Swiss philosopher and psychologist named Jean Piaget. He spent most of his time studying children, and came to the conclusion that children do not think the same way as adult’s do2. Cognitive psychology refers to a variety of mental activities, and explains human behaviour as a result of how the mind works. The psychoanalytic approach is a school of psychology which focuses on unconscious mental processes, early childhood experiences and the Psychosexual and psychosocial stages of development. According to Freud, we have 3 main parts that make up our personality and these are the id, ego and superego. The id is otherwise known as the pleasure principle and responds to demands such as warmth and sexual gratification. (Reference from text book) Freud believed that this is the unconscious component of our personalities. The ego, is a part of the id which takes reality into account from a young age. The ego is the conscious part of our personality and is logical and understands the demands of reality. The superego develops through socialization and morality and can sometimes be linked to the conscience as it helps us to make rational decisions and strives for perfection. 3 Freud believed that there are five stages of psychosexualShow MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast Structuralism and Functio nalism1310 Words   |  6 PagesCOMPARE AND CONTRAST STRUCTURALISM AND FUNCTIONALISM In my opinion both of the theories structuralism and functionalism involved the study of the human mind and how it works and they were both concerned with the mind at the conscious level. 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The foundations of the Gestalt psychology are perception, memory and learning. Some of the principles of Gestalt psychology are isomorphism, productive thinking as well as reproductive thinking which will be elaborated in this essay. One of theRead MoreEssay about A Comparison of Two Schools of Psychology1007 Words   |  5 PagesA Comparison of Two Schools of Psychology There are many different schools of psychology, each have their own views and they all look at psychology from different perspectives. I am going to outline six perspectives and then compare and contrast two schools. The biological perspective and major figures such as Karl Lashley looks to the body to explain the mind, they look at hormones, genes, the brain, and the central nervous system to explain the way we think, Read MoreThe Personality Theories Of Sigmund Freud And Alfred Adler999 Words   |  4 Pagescontent of this paper is to describe and critique the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. Within this paper, the background of the theorist will be discussed along with personality theories. This paper will also provide description some of the major principles of personality theories to include lifespan personality changes, gender and culture. The last section will be a personal opinion, why and conclusion of the theories how it can be conceptualized regarding my own family situationRead MorePsychology Is The Study Of The Mind And Behavior1389 Words   |  6 PagesPsychology is the study of the mind and behaviour. Since Psychology first emerged there has been ,many differing schools of Psychology each with different theories in which to understand human behaviour. In this essay I will explain the four major schools of psychology including psychoanalysis, behaviouri sm, biological and cognitive, and the major influences behind each such as Freud. Psychoanalysis is a school of thought first developed by Sigmeund Freud(1856-1939) one of the most influentialRead MorePsychology And Sociology And Psychology1612 Words   |  7 Pagesof society or people, and their behavior, psychology and sociology come to our mind. This is because they are academic fields that posses the same main idea, which is the study of the behavior. Although these two sciences have enormous differences, for those whom never had read anything about this topics it would seem the same. Despite bearing some superficial similarities, the differences between sociology and psychology are pronounced. Actually the main contrast between them is from who are they

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Stevensons Representation of Good and Evil in The Strange...

Stevensons Representation of Good and Evil in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde In this piece of coursework, I am asked to first of all, discuss how the novel is mainly concerned with the struggle between good and evil. Next, I will be moving on to discovering the historical, social, and cultural issues of the novel; this will discus what Stevensons literary influences were. Subsequently, I will be exploring the actual evil character oh Mr. Edward Hyde; this will include a character description of Hyde. Then, I will be analysing the evil incidents that Hyde commits; how Stevenson actually describes these attacks. The symbols of evil will then follow; what the door and the fog†¦show more content†¦However, the character is only complex because of the consumption of a potion or drug, then the one character is transformed into two individual opposite personalities. It is because of Jekylls kind and generous nature he has a good friend in a lawyer, who tries to define the understanding of why Jekyll would give his entire worldly possessions to Hyde, in t he event of his disappearance. Uttersons assessment of Hyde is of a pure, evil, cold and heartless nature. Although Jekyll and Hyde seem opposite, they are the same person. The theme of the novel, therefore, is that good and evil exist together in man. This novel was written in 1886, at a time of change in the world of fiction as a new form of gothic literature emerged that had elements that differed from previous gothic stories. Stevensons story is based around various ideas of gothic literature and is mainly focused on exposing the duality of man and his struggle to hide it from the outside world. The symbolism of Jekyll and Hyde is truly extended to all with differing parts in all of our bodies. It was not a new idea as it had been seen in the classic example of a good and bad guardian, a devil on one shoulder and an angel on another, and also in gothic literature before it, such as Frankenstein with the duelling personalities of Frankenstein and the monster, creator and creation which is easily comparableShow MoreRelatedThe Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1052 Words   |  5 PagesLouis Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Apart from being an exceptional Gothic work, Stevenson’s novella is an excellent critique of the hypocrisy that dominated the Victorian era. In his novella, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson uses the characters of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde to expose the double standards and moral pretensions that governed Victorian society. Dr. Jekyll, the protagonist in Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, is theRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1505 Words   |  7 PagesLouis Stevenson published his novella, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. The fin de sià ¨cle saw the rise of different thoughts and ideas surrounding science and society. These concepts and interpretations sparked the discourse surrounding the theory of degeneration; which was the concern that civilization would fall to a lower state of being. This chapter will be reading multiplex personality as a manifestation of this broader cultural fear. Stevenson’s story played upon the changes society wasRead MoreDr Jekyll And Mr Hyde Analysis1709 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"All human beings are commingled out of good and evil.† Robert Louis Stevenson was no fool when it came to understanding the duality of human nature evident within mankind. In his novella, the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr . Hyde, Stevenson is able to explore his interests concerning the dark, hidden desires that all human beings are guilty of possessing. In his story, a well-respected professional by the name of Dr. Jekyll experiments with the idea of contrasting personalities and successfullyRead MoreJekyll And Hyde Dualism Essay1315 Words   |  6 PagesOne of the most important from the Victorian Gothic Era would be â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.† This novella deals with many themes that intertwine together to form a complex idea of dualism. It has aspects from personality division and the ultimate question of how good and evil can tie into Victorian society’s view of public and private life. Stevenson the personalities of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, with evil and good aspects as well as the public and private life to demonstrate a clearRead MoreFrankenstein And The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde2282 Words   |  10 Pagesand The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde – but also to analyze and explain how these villains represent human temptations and the dark side of a person’s character. Throughout this essay each section will serve to explain what the villains represent and how it ties back to human nature. The Introduction will define evil and villainy as well as the purpose of both villains – Dracula and Hyde – and why this topic is relevant. The Time Period section will discuss what constitutes evil, how itRead More Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde2544 Words   |  11 Pagesâ€Å"The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde† is a gothic horror novella written by Robert Louis Stevenson in the Victorian era. The novella follows a well-respected doctor - Henry Jekyll - and his struggle between good and evil when he takes a potion and becomes Mr Hyde. Robert Louis Stevenson - the author of the novella â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde†- was born in Edinburgh in 1850 and died at the young age of forty-four. He wrote the book in 1886. As a child he was very closeRead MoreComparrison of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and the Picture of Dorian Grey1946 Words   |  8 Pagesapparent in two of the genre’s classic works: Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Grey, and Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Both novels entertain the common theme of duality of the main characters in the book, and also correspondingly go about depicting the vast city of London, England. Both The Picture of Dorian Grey and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde go about depicting London in the same manner. The persistent theme of duality shows the indisputablyRead MoreTheme Of Innocence And Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1054 Words   |  5 PagesExperience, by Blake, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Stevenson, are two stories, which present a case of duality. At the beginning of each of these novels, the author presents two different extremes: Blake presents innocence and experience and Stevenson presents good and evil. In both of these novels, as the story progresses, their two extremes struggle to coexist and one ultimately dominates over the other. Both Songs of Innocence Songs of Experience and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde understand duality asRead MoreBackground of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Essay2077 Words   |  9 PagesBackground of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was published in 1886 and is one of the best known of Stevensons novels. It concerns the way in which an individual is made up of contrary emotions and desires: some good and some evil. Through the curiosity of Utterson, a lawyer, we learn of the ugly and violent Mr Hyde and his oddRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1012 Words   |  5 PagesRobert Louis Stevenson’s â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† is a classic Victorian tale of good and evil. The novel tells the story of Dr. Henry Jekyll, a respected scientist who so desperately needs to separate his morality from his self-indulgence. Aware of the evil side of his own being, he seeks to be free of it through scientific experiments resulting into the â€Å"bestial† Mr. Hyde. It’s a simple tale about the good and evil that exist in all of us. Through his brilliance, Stevenson