Wednesday, July 31, 2019
(Name) Topic: The history and a few different traditions of ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my speech class of the benefits of moderate indoor tanning. Thesis Statement: There is actually a fascinating history behind ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, which I will tell you about today along with some insight to how different countries celebrate this day of love. INTRODUCTION All of us have someone special in our lives. Whether it is a significant other, friends, or family, we all have someone, often many people, whom we love. But how often do we remember to really express the love we feel for these people?Good thing thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a whole day devoted to love, so, at least once a year, we get the chance to tell these people how much we love and appreciate our relationships with them. That day of course is ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. A day for romance and splurging on gifts such as flowers, chocolates, jewelry, and those cute little teddy bears with the f luffy hearts reading Ã¢â¬Å"Be Mine. Ã¢â¬ ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day in the U. S. has also become a day when merchandisers can count on making a few quick bucks, leading most to believe that this horrifically commercialized holiday was invented by the candy, jewelry, and card companies.On the contrary, there is actually a fascinating history behind ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, which I will tell you about today, along with some insight to how some different countries celebrate this day of love. BODY I. History a. St. Valentine i. Catholic church recognizes at least 3 different saints named Valentine or Valentinus ii. Martyred for marrying young men and women when it was outlawed by Emperor Claudius iii. St. Valentine was martyred for trying to help Christians escape from Roman prisons iv.Legend of first written valentine by St. Valentine 1. JailorÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter b. First ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day cards II. Different countries and some unique traditions followed today a. Similar to U. S. i. Australia ii. Canada iii. France b. Different than U. S. i. Wales 1. Welsh ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day Ã¢â¬â St. DwynwenÃ¢â¬â¢s Day 2. Love Spoons ii. Scotland 1. Cards sent anonymously 2. Game at parties 3. Valentine Date Search iii. Finland 1. Ystavanpaiva iv. Denmark 1. Ã¢â¬Å"SnowdropsÃ¢â¬ 2. LoverÃ¢â¬â¢s Cards . Gaekkebrev v. Japan 1. ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day 2. White Day CONCLUSION Here are a few things to remember. ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day was actually deemed a holiday by Pope Gelasius, not Hallmark, HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s or Kay Jewelers. Regardless of the accuracy behind the legends of St. Valentine, they are all great, romantic stories about a man giving his life for what he believed in. Though there are countries where customs do not differ much from our own, there are many traditions followed around the world that are very different.When the next ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day approaches, just remember, the Welsh women will be looking forward to some fancy spoons. Singles in Scotlan d will be wondering which party their crush will be at so that they can go to the same one and hopefully draw their name. The Finnish will be looking forward to spending time with their best friends. Danish women will be thinking really hard to win an Easter egg. And if you want to continue to receive gifts on ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, do not move to Japan. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Outline and assess one of the main approaches to the study of religions. Religion and Ã¢â¬ËThe Study of ReligionsÃ¢â¬â¢ has many approaches which try to investigate the core of what religion is and what it means to the people who practice it. Sociology is one such approach that this essay will be looking at through its founding fathers Emile Durkheim, Max Weber and Karl Marx. Sociology in general looks at peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamics and explains a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s influence. It demonstrates how religious belief and practices have become so important over time and emphasises their role and significance throughout. Each of these three sociologists has a link to these ideas which will be the main thesis in this essay. Emile Durkheim looks at religion from a functionalist perspective in the sense that he assumes that religion has a positive role in society, as it acts as an important socialisation process for all members. The theory is largely based on the Arunta tribe in Australia, where he discovered objects worshipped which he calls Ã¢â¬Ëtotems. Ã¢â¬â¢ These totems according to him were an important factor in the society; seeing that the objects became a symbol of the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and unity. These objects he claims are Ã¢â¬Å"collective representationÃ¢â¬ (Fish, Jonathan S. 2005: 30) as they have reinforced the importance of integration into the community via the worshipped objects. The worshipped object have an emotional significance to them as the Ã¢â¬Å"totems serve as evocative device for reminding individuals of their initial feelings long after the assembliesÃ¢â¬ (Fish, Jonathan S. 2005:51) therefore evidently it becomes more about the idea and symbolism of the object rather than the object itself that unites all. Thus making the idea of rituals of greater significance as it generally binds people together which for Durkheim is always a positive thing. On the other hand, Durkheim does not offer a real explanation on why some deviate from such societyÃ¢â¬â¢s e. g. Islamic fundamentalists such as the Taliban. Perhaps his theory generally works on a tribal base rather than bigger societies, where conflicts and divides are more common; in a smaller community less people are likely to go against the status quo. Moreover, to say that religion only plays a positive role is absurd. How can one explain the atrocities that occur on the name of religion for instance? For this reason I find DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s theory limiting as it does not look at all aspects of religion or religious life but merely draws a quick conclusion to it. Also according to this perspective religion instils the same norms and values for everyone, making it a regulatory function in society. Religion for Marx then becomes a form of social control which provides guidelines through religious texts e. g. 10 commandments. These norms which are shared gives people the opportunity to unite to what may be seen as morally incorrect or sinful. This can be vital in a society as it can allow social stability. Durkheim argument is plausible as there has been a significant rise in New Religious Movements. This evidently shows that people still require religion in their life. Moreover, the recent increase on religious fundamentalists can be a point that strengthens Durkheim argument as it can be evidence for people being threatened by a weakening society. Karl Marx similar to Durkheim starts with the assumption that religion is in fact a product of society. Importantly, however, he disagrees with Durkheim as he does not see religion as beneficial for the whole of society but argues it benefits only the ruling class or what he calls the Ã¢â¬ËbourgeoisieÃ¢â¬â¢. Religion, according to Marx only transmits bourgeoisie ideologies to convince the working class or Ã¢â¬ËproletariatsÃ¢â¬â¢ that inequality is natural and fair phenomena in the world. Making religion as a whole a Ã¢â¬Å"collective smoke-screenÃ¢â¬ (Connolly, P. 1999:100) as it distorts reality which gives explanation for inequality as being of religious significance i. e. sin. For Marx this is the core idea behind religion making it a tool for oppression and a form of social control. Religion is claimed to be the Ã¢â¬Å"opium of the peopleÃ¢â¬ (Hamilton, Malcolm B 2001:81), making it a drug which is used by people as an illusion to hide or cover up the real causes of suffering, which for Marx is primarily capitalism. Capitalism covers up religion and manages to help the bourgeoisie greatly, as it becomes a Ã¢â¬Å"comforting illusionÃ¢â¬ (Hamilton, Malcolm B 2001:80) as the proletariats do not question the status quo due to their belief in getting a greater reward in the afterlife. Religion itself is used to justify hierarchy in the world, a verse in a hymn such as the following are used, Ã¢â¬Å"the rich man in his castle, the poor man at his gate, god made them. Highly or lowly, and ordered their stateÃ¢â¬ . This stresses MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s point that as itÃ¢â¬â¢s believed to be sanctioned by God it is unlikely to be challenged by anyone. The Marxists perspective generally makes many valid arguments which society can relate to even today. The idea of caste system is still relevant in many Hindu traditions (although generally frowned upon). Buddhism has the idea of karma meaning if you are a poor person in this life then itÃ¢â¬â¢s to do with your own bad karma in the previous life. Therefore Marxism is correct in this aspect, that religion is used in order to justify inequality. Another key piece of evidence for the Marxists perspective is the fact that the Catholic Church is arguably allowing the spread of aids due to its stance against contraception. As a result of this, there is a continuation of social deprivation especially in Africa which further illustrates that religion is generally used to keep social inequality. Marxism disagrees that religion can bring about social change, this, however can be disputed. This is mainly due to the fact religious leaders have challenged the status quo in order to bring about change in their societies. Two main examples being Father Camillo Torres Restrepo and Martin Luther King whose works brought about a vast amount of change to Colombia and America respectively. Evidently this contrasts to the Marxists view as it shows that religion can in fact bring about social change and consequently allow for equality. Personally, I feel that the Marxists view limits human nature as it assumes they will simply follow rather than stand up to injustice. More importantly sociology in general claims to work in an objective and scientific way but I cannot see how it is possible with Marxists ideas such as on the religion being a drug and comforting as these ideas are impossible to measure. Max Weber is regarded as a social action theorist due to his claim that religion can shape and define society. He argues that religion can indeed bring about social change; he bases his argument on a Christian group named the Calvinists whom according to him brought about a form of western capitalism. This form of Ã¢â¬Å"ascetic ProtestantismÃ¢â¬ (Johnstone, Ronald L. 2004:196) allows for the growth of capitalism because of their belief on disciplined hard work which to them emphasised the Glory of God. This Ã¢â¬Å"spirit of capitalismÃ¢â¬ (Furseth, Inger and Pal Repstad 2006:36) did not allow for the accumulation of wealth but actually encouraged reinvestment back into the society according to Weber. The so called Protestant ethics approach leads him to believe that this led to social change as society turned to mass producing mechanised industries. Another way the Calvinist were able to bring about social change, was thorough the apprehension people had. Calvinists believed in predestination which led to the belief that having a good business or being successful could have indicated that you were one of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen people. This gives the perception that people were competing over heaven and failure was not an option for people. However, Weber does not limit the growth of capitalism to the Calvinist alone as he is aware of other factors. WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s argument must be treated with a degree of caution. Evidence suggests that Protestant nations were not always capitalistic and vice versa. Also many believe that Catholic countries were already flourishing before the breakaway from Catholicism occurred. The study of Religions deal with many wide and opposing issues some of which have been covered in this essay through the works of Durkheim, Marx and Weber. Although, each sociologist does give a good account of explaining the dynamics within a religious group but with each case a very simplistic and generalised view was given by the sociologist about religion. It is plausible to argue that religion brings people together through rituals but is it not a natural thing for people to unite whilst doing something together? In this view then perhaps anything can be said to have religious significance as long as it brings people together. Additionally, the idea of a greater reward in the afterlife is not the only justification given about inequality. In the greater sense inequality within religion can be about anything from the roles of men and women to dress code. Therefore once again this idea has been limited to it being about capitalism. Religion is said to be able to bring about social change which arguably is a factor but for it to be the only thing is for me far fetched. It is an inherent thing for people to fight when they are being wronged. It is about something within rather than it being about religion.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Causes of Unrest in Middle East and North Africa Historians and philosophers, political scientists, economists, and sociologists are trying to identify the root causes of social unrest and their implications in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa in the end of the first and the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century. There are quite a lot of factors serving as the foundation for social unrest in the ME and NA. They are both objective and subjective. The bases of social revolutions are mainly domestic factors, though not without external assumptions. The root causes of the revolutionary upheavals in the Arab world and the Middle East and North African crisis lie in the limited model of modernization, which has led to a disproportionate, extensive and slow development of the region.  In January 2014, the Arab world has noted the fourth anniversary of the event, which journalists dubbed as the Ã¢â¬Å"Arab Spring Ã¢â¬Å". Indeed, at first, the world started to witness Ã¢â¬Å"iconicÃ¢â¬ events occur ring in the region, where the resignation of Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, who ruled the country since 1987, on January 14 2011, launched the cascade known as the domino effect. Later, on the 11th of February 2011 the fall of Tunisian president was followed by the most sensational resignation of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, who ruled the country since 1981. In combination with the removal of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi (who ruled from 1969) on the 20th of October 2011, events of the Ã¢â¬Å"Arab SpringÃ¢â¬ began to be perceived and interpreted as signs of radical changes in the entire Arab region, and more broadly within the whole Islamic World  . The nomination of main slogans demanding the democratisation of public institutions of government had a dual effect on the countries of the region. Firstly, the Ã¢â¬Å"spring tideÃ¢â¬ having swept away a number of Middle Eastern regimes, still failed to overthrow the most powerful outposts of authoritarianism w ithin the region  . These authoritarian outposts are personified by Arab Monarchies of the Persian Gulf  , who happen to be traditional allies of the USA. Reluctance to initiate the reforms for the liberalisation of the regime led to them being discredited in the eyes of the global community as well as the indigenous peoples of the region. And secondly, the events of the last decade, beginning with the US invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq  have led, in combination with crisis of power in Egypt and Syria, to the elimination of the political culture and institutions of the Middle East, by knocking out the traditional Ã¢â¬Å"heavyweightsÃ¢â¬ of the Middle East: Iraq, Egypt and Syria. All of these events together resulted in the emergence of activity of those labelled as Ã¢â¬Å"outsidersÃ¢â¬ by the Arab world. These non-Arab Ã¢â¬Å"outsidersÃ¢â¬ are primarily Iran and Turkey. The failure of the revolutions to lay foundation for new Political, Economic and Social instit utions has been replaced by simple Ã¢â¬Å"reshuffling of spheres of power and influence. And in Iran, a Ã¢â¬Å"green movementÃ¢â¬ has been chosen as an alternative path  . Throughout the course of the revolution, there were strong expectations that the Middle East was entering a period of democratic development  , which was said to achieve all of the attributes of a free civil society, which had for so many years existed in Western countries. However, further advancement of the situation in the region has led to an increase in the influence of supporters of critical perception of the nature and probable consequences of this rebellious movement not only for countries of that region, but also for the whole system of modern international relations. Western experts have increasingly highlighted the ambiguity of this phenomenon for the fate of the entire region, by agreeing on the fundamental reshaping of the entire system of Ã¢â¬Å"balance of forcesÃ¢â¬ . This choir is partic ularly dominated by the notable work of Efraim Inbar, an Israeli expert and his work Ã¢â¬Å"The Arab uprisings and national safety of Israel.Ã¢â¬ According to Inbar, all what is happening in the region, will not deliver any positive outcomes in terms of stability and regional securityÃ¢â¬  . Despite the secular influence of Western culture, none of the Arab States managed to build a stable, democratic society, based on the ideas of civil liberties, political rights, a system of universal education, gender equality and economic development. The Ã¢â¬Å"democraticÃ¢â¬ elections in Lebanon in 2005 and Palestine in 2009 brought to power of the Islamists, indicating that the imperfection of the civil society in the Arab world. The most dangerous version of the situation under the influence of the Ã¢â¬Å"Arab SpringÃ¢â¬ and according to Inbar, there will be an emergence of nuclear Iran, who may ultimately win some time to complete work on its nuclear program and put the globa l community fait accompli. This may result in a Ã¢â¬Å"chain reactionÃ¢â¬ when other countries region will aim to commence the development of their own nuclear programs, seriously complicating the national security of Israel, which as of now is the only nuclear Power in the conflict-laden region. Activation of Iran on the foreign policy arena after the uprisings is not accidental. Behind its activation lies the influx of huge amounts of Petrodollars, rising anti-American sentiment in the region caused by frankly failed policies of the United States, the rise to power of an ambitious and eccentric leader Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, IranÃ¢â¬â¢s implementation of its own Ã¢â¬Å"nuclear programÃ¢â¬ , which turned into a personification of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s power revival  . Hence the interest of specialists and politicians on foreign policy doctrine of modern Iran, where it states that it is based not on the principles of national interest but rather the principle of Islamic solidarity, r ooted in the teachings of Imam Khomeini, in relation to the Islamic revolution. Thus, consideration of ideological concepts of Imam Khomeini in interpreting the current leader of the Islamic Revolution (Rahbar) Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, should help understanding and explaining the steps taken by Iran during the reign of the current President of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad  . The analysis of these concepts will help to forecast future foreign policy initiatives of Iran with its aim to resolve the intra-regional problems.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Proteins - Essay Example Enzymes can be defined as catalysts that cause a chemical reaction to process at a quicker pace. For instance, oxygen is a catalyst for fire. Enzymes are the catalysts of biological and chemical processes that are related to a variety of natural processes occurring in human beings. This includes a wide range including the formation, decomposition and rearranging of molecules to provide the individual with the energy and essential substances needed to live and function. Without enzymes however, these processes would occur far too slowly for proper metabolism. Enzymes are composed of amino acids. This combination of amino acids is usually referred to as a protein. Many refer to enzymes as special proteins that are biologically active or contain energy. It is because of this energy releasing element that enzymes are able to perform its work. Nevertheless, enzymes cannot be classified alongside other proteins. Once the enzyme no longer possesses energy, it will fail in its function as a catalyst and is now equal to any other general protein in the body. Enzymes are classified under several key groups. These include Proteases that help breakdown proteins, Lipases that help decompose lipids and fats, Amylases that help break down carbohydrates and finally Cellulases that break down the vegetative matter called cellulose. Further enzymes can also be classified as digestive enzymes, food enzymes, metabolism enzymes, etc. Food enzymes are introduced to the body via the oral intake of foods. However, food in this crude form manifests only necessary enzymes to digest that particular food item, which is usually not sufficient for storing in the body for use at a later time. It should be added that the process of cooking and processing (as done in mass produced foods) depletes the food of all its enzyme content. In this context, enzyme therapy comes as a boon for all those aspiring to prolong their natural lives. By understanding the core
Agency perspective - Essay Example All the members of the Very Bad Bike Club (VBBC) are dangerous because they engage in a number of criminal activities ranging from drug trafficking to participation in a criminal enterprise. Major Allen Irongate has his job well defined as the Security Chief of the state correctional facility. Since the member of Very Bad Bike Club (VBBC) roam Virtual, they are in constant battles with the police who are diligent to make Virtual a safe city. In this regard, a number of criminals find themselves at the correctional facility after facing prosecution from the Chief Prosecutor. The Security Chief of the state correctional facility oversees the welfare of prisoners under his docket to ensure that none of them escapes. In addition, Major Allen Irongate, who holds the docket, is responsible for the intake and release of prisoners, most of who belong to VBBC. He also has a duty to keep the records of all inmates and those released on parole. Although Major Allen Irongate has tried her best to manage the correctional facility, constant release and sentencing of same criminals have thwarted his efforts (Ferdico, Fradella, & Totten, 2013).Ã The perspective of the Security Chief of the state correctional facility, Major Allen Irongate is quite strange in the sense that she has her personal issues with Very Bad Bike Club (VBBC). She holds the strong opinion that the imprisonment of the majority of the VBBC members has relieved the city of Virtual of the unrest it had experienced hitherto. In fact, she feels that the correctional facility is doing its job diligently because of the marked reduction in criminal cases within the locality. It means that correctional facilities are not places where criminals face harsh disciplinary measures, but rehabilitation centers (McCullough, 2006).Ã Instead of reforming and becoming better citizens as Major Irongate
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Terrorism in the Middle East - Essay Example The author has also held tenure as visiting professor at New York University and Columbia University. In the author's own words, the " purpose of the book is to shed light on the second effect [of 9/11that of mobilizing the support of Muslims the world over through an example of victory won by violence], by placing these recent events in a historical perspective that covers the unfolding of the Islamic movement over the last twenty five years of the twentieth century" (page 2). The author expands on this theme by suggesting that the terrorist act of September 11, 2001 had at its core the primary aim of engendering solidarity amongst Muslims. It was presumed by the perpetrators, that an attack on the very symbols of US supremacy would surely invite military action resulting in unacceptable civilian casualties in the target country, [in this case Afghanistan], leading to a collective sense of outrage in the Muslim world. The perpetrators of the act hoped, that this would give impetus to the Jihad (Holy War) which was running out of steam. The last quarter of the twentieth century saw the radicalization of Islam in the form of Islamic Political Movements. From the early 1970s, radical factions in various countries revolted against the incumbent regimes and, in some cases, seized power thereby upsetting the prevailing world order leading to regional instability. In the early days, the aim of Jihad was not to wage war against the West, but to establish a global Islamic state, with the Koran as its fountainhead (page 27). During those initial days of the Islamic Political Movement, religious ideology proved to be an excellent binding factor, bringing together people from all walks of life - from students to professionals, urban poor and well settled bourgeoisie under one banner (page 67). However, as Kepel points out, Islamic Fundamentalists do not subscribe to the concept of separation of religion (Church) and political power (State). It is these fundamentalist factions that are propagating Jihad with terrorism as its m anifestation wherever Western nations have in the past dominated on account of their conventional superiority. This trend according to the author has its roots in Afghanistan and the Sudan. After the initial success of Islamic radicals in Iran, Radical Islamic Movements failed to seize political power elsewhere. Even in Afghanistan (post the Soviet withdrawal) and in Sudan, Islamists could not consolidate their gains and the situation in both countries slipped into chaos and anarchy. This failure led to a split. The moderates wanted to develop new concepts of democracy in sync with Muslim ideology. The fundamentalists of the other hand, for whom the Koran itself was unquestionable, gravitated towards large-scale terrorist attacks across the world. What Kepels brings out is that contrary to popular belief, far from being a 'clash of civilizations' [as propounded by Huntington], the targeting of the West is only a tool being used by radical terrorist factions to gain political power over their fellow Muslims. This is a very unique and original hypothesis expounded by the author. In this context the author brings out that the "attack on
Friday, July 26, 2019
Theme on Piri Thomas, Down These Mean Streets - Essay Example hich the readers experience how they lead the author to a dark destiny and they also just become able to peek in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche that constantly pulls him towards the darkness. In one sense, the streets in the novel are the abstraction of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s dark path of life, as in the article Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of Sidewalks: SafetyÃ¢â¬ Jacobs comments on how street can be the abstraction: Ã¢â¬Å"A city sidewalk by itself is nothing. It is an abstractionÃ¢â¬ ¦.the same might be said off streets...Ã¢â¬ ( Jacobs 30). But the way how Jacobs deals with the idea of street is different from PiriÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to it in the sense that whereas Jacobs views Ã¢â¬ËstreetÃ¢â¬â¢ from an optimistic and positive vantage point, the streets in PiriÃ¢â¬â¢s novel are the path of destructions. In the novel, Piri notes that Ã¢â¬Å"A twelve-year-old kid walking the streets at 3 a.m. was a nothing sight in HarlemÃ¢â¬ (6). For Piri, a Ã¢â¬Å"twelve-year-oldÃ¢â¬ kid means th e kidÃ¢â¬â¢s lost track. In contrast, a kid on a city sidewalk Ã¢â¬âthat is under proper safety measures- conveys a sort security release. Coming out of JacobsÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of a street, Piri uses it as an abstraction of various culture related oppression, suppression, and discrimination of the early 20th century of American society. In this sense it can be said that if any of the views is taken apart from the other, the socio-cultural notion of a street will remain incomplete; both JacobsÃ¢â¬â¢s and PiriÃ¢â¬â¢s views are complementary to each other. In the novel, PiriÃ¢â¬â¢s general tendency is to look into the society, first, to find out its anomalies and discrepancies, and then he moves on to reflect them in the portrayal of the city streets. But in an opposite manner, Jacobs, in the first place, focuses the city streets in order depicts the society. To a great extent, Jacobs approach is analogous to a white approach toward the black. It deliberately leaves a scope for an observer to overlook the societal variables that are primarily responsible for the city
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Middle East Customs - Essay Example Waltke. He later went for overseas study in University of Goettingen in Germany between August 1982 to July 1983 where he furthered his education under the supervision of Dr. Rudolph Smend, Dr. Rykle Borger and Dr. Lothar Perlitt. He holds a doctorate degree in Philosophy in Old Testament from Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia which he was awarded in 1988. When he was studying in this University, he wrote a dissertation titled "A Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Chronicles" under the supervision of John H. Hayes. Cracking Old Testament Codes helps the readers to understand the Old Testament and also enhances the way preachers interprets the Old Testament accordingly. The book is divided into two sections whereby the first three chapters are said to be an introduction for the reader to understand the concept of literary forms "genres" when we relate it to Old Testament. The Author begins the section with an article titled "Literary Forms of the Old Testament". In this section, the author tries to establish in written communication the reality of such forms which he explains in the Old Testament. According to the author, understanding of "genre" is quite involving as it concerns establishing the form, content and later on the textual unit function. He urges that there should be ten basic genres in the Old Testament and not the traditional five that are common on hermeneutic in older works. He also urges that for genres to function properly in the text, there are supposed to be ten in number. T he author advocates the use of three different genres namely:- Narrative History and, Law Moreover, prophecy is seen as a combination of prose and poetry that has three different genres that include: Oracles of Salvation, Announcements of Judgment and apocalyptic. Poetry is divided into psalms of lament and psalms of praise while wisdom has two main divisions that include proverbial and non-proverbial wisdom. The second division of the book are the ten chapters that mainly emphasizes on the values and dangers in the interpretive process in literary form perspective. "Genre criticism" is distinguished as it concerns with the final canonical form not the prior sources whether it is oral or in written form as it is commonly known with source criticism to some rhetorical criticism and degree form. This section has ten chapters and each one of them addresses the ten genre of the Old Testament literature. These chapters are viewed to very useful to the readers as they are very simplified for the reader to grasp the content easily. They are seen to be having very useful instruction and information for the readers. Finally, the last chapter is seen as giving instruction to the preachers to use the knowledge they acquire in these chapters when preparing the sermon. IV. Evaluation. Cracking Old Testament Codes is a valuable book to the reader as the author took time to think about his audience and every
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Testing the relationship between the stock market and Time series model - Essay Example ionship between the stock market and Time series modelÃ¢â¬ is aimed at explaining the volatility modelling used for stock market analysis, thus evaluating the performance of the ARCH and GARCH models. Data from four Asian stock market indices like Hang Seng index, Jakarta index, KLSE index and Stock exchange of Thailand index during 2000 to 2006 have been used in this study. The analysis helped to reach a conclusion that EGARCH is the best model among the GARCH family which helps in estimating the volatility of stock market to predict the stock market for future investment. By analysing recent developments in the stock exchanges gathered from newspaper reports, it is seen that a common question could be posed among the investors in stock. The question is Ã¢â¬Å"Is the stock market predictable?Ã¢â¬ It has become the main concern of many researchers for the last 20 years due to the up and down fluctuations leading to a large volatility. There are many stock market prediction tools contributed by different researchers which are helpful to both the public and institutions. There arises a question as to why a tool is required to predict the stock market due to the complexity of the stock market which is mainly influenced by economical, political, and monetary features. However, the fact is that marketsÃ¢â¬â¢ reaction against each economic shock (i.e. bad news and good news) may vary from country to country due to their own macro economical and financial characteristics. For example, statistics show that Asian shares have fallen dramatically which is as follows: Tokyo by 11%, London Stock exchange by 5.7%, Hang Seng by 7.6%, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s by 4%, Australia by 6.7% etc. (Wall Street shares yo-yo n.d.). For that reason, it is necessary to use several models to forecast volatility as well as evaluate them. It is seen that South Eastern stock exchanges have responded with lesser impact to the economic recession than European and American economies. The selected countries for this
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
How can public transport systems be improved in the uk - Essay Example The UK toad transport system, for example, is faced by endless traffic jams and expensive parking spots (Paulley et al 2006). This has called for improvement of the UK transportation system. More than other areas, the public transportation system needs improvement in order to serve members of the public better. A good public transportation system is vital in building a good society, in addition to creating a strong economy. A good public transportation system for the UK should be fair for all users and be properly integrated to ensure the effective flow of door-to-door transport services. To achieve this, public transport stakeholders should work together with local authorities and transport operators to improve rail and public road transport (Paulley et al 2006). There should also be improved access to public transportation system through good cycle paths, roads, and sidewalks for pedestrians. Furthermore, the transport systems, especially roads should have traffic signs which go a long way in easing traffic flow, reducing accidents, and providing direction to members of the public. A good public transport will ensure that people do not use their personal cars every time they travel, which is important in reducing congestion on the roads (Litman et al 2008). Reduced use of personal cars will also help in reducing carbon emission and consequently contribute toward the achievement of a cleaner environment. Currently, trains are found far away from many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s places of residence and are often congested (Wiltshire Council 2011). The current train and bus services cannot compete with personal cars in terms of cost, comfort, and convenience. Furthermore, many bus and train operators are offer low quality services, are expensive, and charge varying fares. Public transport services can be improved through the implementation of traffic management systems (Wiltshire Council 2011). This will help free buses from
Catoon Obama Essay The cartoon shows President Barack Obama who is walking towards the White House. In the foreground there are two African-American which are hiding between the trees and bushes in the garden. Obama stops his march into the White House to look back to the black people and waves. One of them is retuning the gesture. In the garden are three sings. On one of them is the name Ã¢â¬Å"JIM CROWÃ¢â¬ written, which is a symbol of the race discrimination. He symbolizes the stereotype of a singing, dancing black man, who is satisfied with himself and the world around him, although his intelligence is below the average. On the other sings is Ã¢â¬Å"SEGREGATIONÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"SLAVERYÃ¢â¬ written. These two words also refer to the history and discrimination of the African-American in the United States. In the left hand corner is a kind of headline which says Ã¢â¬Å"THE FINAL DESTINATION ON THE FREEDOM ROAD Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . The cartoon is an exaggerated view on the events which are related to ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency and his status as the first African-American President. The White House, which is located in the center of the picture and itÃ¢â¬â¢s painted in bright colours. Alpha This results a huge contrast to the dark forest on both edges of the picture. Obama is walking in the opposite way of the direction. This means, that he has overcome the discrimination and has become the first black president. But on his half way he pauses and looks back to the other black people and raises his hand, so that they know that he still knows, that he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t forget them. He symbolizes the opportunities of the black people, and how much they have changed in the past fifty years, so even an African-American man can be in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s highest office and be respected by the most of the American citizens. ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s still very popular so he was reelected although he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that superhero figure. He has reached the final destination on the road of the freedom and the equality of the black.
Monday, July 22, 2019
David and Solomon Essay In 1 Kings 9:12-13, Hiram, the king of Tyre, is described as not pleased with the kind of towns that King Solomon has given him. Perhaps expecting for something that would have equaled all the pine, cedar and gold that he gave Solomon, Hiram questioned the King about the towns that he received. On the other hand, 2 Chronicles 8:2 merely mentions that Solomon reconstructed the villages that Hiram had given, after which he settled the Israelites in these villages. Following the passages in 1 Kings 9:10-28, Hiram named the twenty towns in Galilee he received from Solomon as the Land of Cabul. The word Ã¢â¬Å"CabulÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Ëwhat does not pleaseÃ¢â¬â¢ in Phoenician. The fact that the Hiram named the land Solomon has given him Ã¢â¬Å"CabulÃ¢â¬ suggests that, indeed, Hiram was not pleased at all with the gestures of the King. Perhaps the reason to HiramÃ¢â¬â¢s displeased reaction is that he gave all the pine, cedar and gold that Solomon wanted only to get twenty lands which did not suit his taste. It might have been the case that Hiram had high expectations in return of his gestures to Solomon. On the other hand, 2 Chronicles 8:2 suggests that Hiram gave the towns to Solomon instead of Solomon supposedly giving Hiram the twenty towns in Galilee in 1 Kings 9:11. In 2 Chronicles 8:2, it is mentioned that Solomon Ã¢â¬Å"rebuiltÃ¢â¬ the cities he received, implying that the cities were not in good condition. In the same passage, we are also told that Solomon eventually placed the Israelites to live in those rebuilt cities. The passage appears to point us the idea that Solomon was a king who was out to develop the undeveloped and to expand his dominion through the resources he garnered from his conquests. Moreover, SolomonÃ¢â¬â¢s men together with HiramÃ¢â¬â¢s sailors returned home from Ophir delivering four hundred and fifty talents of gold to Solomon in 2 Chronicles 8:17-18. On the contrary, 1 Kings 9:28 narrates the same fleet of men sailing to Ophir but only delivering four hundred and twenty talents of gold to Solomon. The discrepancy in the amount of gold delivered suggests at least two ideas: one is that Solomon was either exceedingly triumphant or not in his exploits and two is that he was either a well-respected ruler or not by his subjects. In essence, the accounts provided in 2 Chronicles 8:1-18 suggest that Solomon was a king who was exceedingly triumphant so much so that Hiram was compelled to give him cities which Solomon then rebuilt. On the other hand, the accounts provided in 1 Kings 9:10-28 suggest that Solomon was a ruler who, in general, did not give the appropriate dues to people who expected much from him insomuch as he was a ruler who the royal subjects can easily steal from due in part to a lack of honesty and respect. I think the two accounts differ with respect to the descriptions of the character and the actions of Solomon because of differing perceptions towards Solomon. I think the inclusion of the displeased reaction of Hiram in 1 Kings 9:12-13 may suggest that some people saw Solomon at the time of his rule as someone who could only care less about how other people may see him and react against his actions. On the contrary, the omission of HiramÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction in 2 Chronicles 8:2 may suggest that how people viewed Solomon with regard to his actions was irrelevant since he may have been seen as a righteous ruler who provided for his subjects their necessities. In general, the description of SolomonÃ¢â¬â¢s reign in 1 Kings is not only Ã¢â¬Å"based on a variety of sources with a different provenanceÃ¢â¬ but also Ã¢â¬Å"displays traces of different stages of redactionÃ¢â¬ (Talshir, p. 233) or the combination of multiple source texts, thereby suggesting that the differences in the accounts can be largely attributed to their respective writers. In both 2 Samuel 8:1-18 and 1 Chronicles 18:1-17, the triumphs of David in all of his wars are narrated. In all of the wars revealed in the two accounts, David is portrayed as an able leader who is very much capable of invading territories and still not forgetting to make offerings to God such as the gold and silver exploits. Both accounts agree that the Lord helped David wherever he went, indicating that the Lord was pleased with the efforts of David. However, one major difference between the two accounts is that, in 2 Samuel 8:2, David is described as having been able to defeat the Moab forces which was followed by the execution the few remaining Moabites. In the selection process, the Moabites were made to lie on the ground in a line and those who were within two lines were put to death while those in the third length were given the chance to live under the rule of David. Apparently, nothing about the process of the execution was mention throughout 1 Chronicles 18:1-17. The inclusion of the description of the execution of the Moabites in 2 Samuel 8:2 gives a rough image of how David was supposedly ruthless towards his conquered subjects. The passage gives us the impression that, although David was kind enough to Ã¢â¬Å"randomlyÃ¢â¬ allow some of the Moabites to live, he was nonetheless a leader and a warrior who showed little mercy towards those who have survived the onslaught of his armies. The seemingly detailed account of the execution of the Moabites creates an eerie mental environment, appearing as a visual reminder that David was a conqueror who displayed his authority and power with little mercy. And yet, David is still portrayed in the same passage as an abiding servant of the Lord who never forgets to provide his offerings to God. It signifies that, since the Lord helped David wherever he went, nothing can stand against the way and the disposition of David. In essence, it appears that the position of the writer in 2 Samuel 8:1-18 is that David was a devout servant of the Lord while being a ruthless conqueror who can easily take the lives of his conquered subjects according to his will. On the other hand, the writer of 1 Chronicles 18:1-17 seems to suggest that David was blessed by the Lord and that he was a leader who piously served and gave offerings to the Lord without the hint of ruthlessness revealed in 2 Samuel 8:2. The two accounts differ primarily because David, I think, was a ruler hated in his time by those who became victims of his military actions. It is therefore not surprising that at least one account pertaining to DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s military advances gave several details about how people were executed depending on the decision of David. However, those who saw David as a righteous ruler and those who benefitted from his triumphs are more inclined to put David on a more positive regard. Roddy L. Braun suggests that the ChroniclerÃ¢â¬âthe writer of the book of ChroniclesÃ¢â¬âpresents DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s kingship as Ã¢â¬Å"greeted by the mixed multitudes of Israel with immediate and enthusiastic unanimityÃ¢â¬ (Braun, p. 503) unlike the respective writers of Samuel and Kings. Such variations in writings can hardly be reconciled almost entirely and that the only way to avoid the vicious circle that can commence from the failure to reconcile the accounts, as Sara Japhet suggests, is Ã¢â¬Å"by studying the matter from its positive aspectsÃ¢â¬ânot from what is omitted, but from what is existentÃ¢â¬ (Japhet, p. 206). Thus, it is not necessarily the case that the differences in the accounts mean that one account is true and the other is not. While Solomon may be portrayed in Kings quite differently from Chronicles or while David may be portrayed in Samuel differently from Chronicles, the differences may not essentially signify the truthfulness or falsehood of either one of the accounts. Rather, the presence of additional details in the each account provides more insight into the lives of Kings David and Solomon. Works Cited Braun, Roddy L. Ã¢â¬Å"Solomonic Apologetic in Chronicles. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Biblical Literature 92. 4 (1973): 503-16. Japhet, Sara. Ã¢â¬Å"Conquest and Settlement in Chronicles. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Biblical Literature 98. 2 (1979): 205-18. Talshir, Zipora. Ã¢â¬Å"The Reign of Solomon in the Making. Ã¢â¬ Vetus Testamentum 50. 2 (2000): 233-49
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Wireless Local Loop Wireless Local Loop Abstract-A local loop connects a subscriber to the service providers switch, this connection is usually a wire; typically copper wire. Advanced studies on the capabilities of copper wire as a transmission medium has made it possible to use the local loop to offer services other than the basic voice service. This technology known as digital subscriber line technology (DSL) utilizes the existing copper wires to provide high speed data services. Optical fibre is a better option particularly for its large bandwidth but cost restricts its use as a local loop. Wireless local loop eliminates the need for wires as the subscribers equipment is wirelessly connected to the providers network. Wireless local loop (WLL) is a popular alternative as it has been deployed in both developed and developing nations because of its advantages. With an ever increasing demand to access the internet, the wireless local loop has evolved seeking to meet such demand. This paper looks at the several wireless local loop technologies as well as its prospects and future as a medium for broadband wireless services. Keywords: Wireless Local Loop, Internet, Broadband INTRODUCTION The local loop refers to the circuit terminating at the subscribers premises connecting the subscriber equipment to the switch of the telecommunications provider. It is the last lap of the providers infrastructure over which services are delivered to the user, hence, the term Ã¢â¬Å"last mileÃ¢â¬ is also used to refer to the local loop. Copper wires have been the principal candidate for the local loop providing voice service for telephony. However, digital subscriber line technology (DSL) makes it possible to use existing copper wires to offer services other than voice such as data, video, and multimedia services. One form of digital subscriber line technology (DSL), asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is the most commonly used today. Optical fibre has a lot of advantages over copper wire and that makes it an excellent choice for local loop but its cost is prohibitive. Wireless local loop also known as radio local loop uses radio signals to complete the last lap to the users premises. Wireless local loop is particularly suited to remote locations providing access to providers infrastructure and in areas where the terrain makes it impossible to lay cables. Wireless local loop offers a number of advantages over its wireline counterpart. 1) Fast deployment 2) Low installation cost 3) Low maintenance cost 4) High system capacity There are several wireless local loop (WLL) technologies available, hence, the technology deployed for a particular area will depend on the population density and service needs of the users. The rest of the paper is organized as follows, in section II, the wireless local loop architecture is considered. Section III presents the wireless local loop technologies followed by the wireless local loop for broadband services in section IV. Section V concludes the paper. WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The wireless local loop architecture is shown in figure 1. The fixed subscriber unit (FSU) is an interface between subscribers wired devices and wireless local loop network. The wired devices can be computers as well as telephones. The fixed subscriber performs channel coding and decoding, modulation and demodulation, and transmission/reception of signal via radio. The base transceiver system (BTS) performs channel coding/decoding, modulation and demodulation as well as transmission and reception of signal via radio. The base transceiver system is also referred to as the radio port (RP). A base station controller (BSC) controls one or more base transceiver systems (BTSs) and provides an interface to the local exchange (switch) in the central office . WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP TECHNOLOGIES A. Microcellular based systems These systems provide low delay, low power and high quality services in a small coverage area. Compared with the cellular based wireless local loop, more base stations are required to cover the same service area. They are typically operated at 800MHz, 1.5GHz, 1.8GHz, and 1.9GHz frequency bands . 1) Personal access communication system (PACS) Personal access communication system (PACS) is a low power radio system for both personal communication system applications and for fixed wireless loop applications. Personal access communication system is optimized to provide basic capabilities to support wireless local loop and additional capabilities to support mobility. The service capabilities of personal access communication system include voice, fax, voiceband data, and wireless digital data. The basic personal access communication handset can handle user with vehicle speeds up to about 50km/hr . The personal access communication system architecture is shown in figure 2. The radio port (RP) function as radio frequency (RF) modems. Personal access communication system (PACS) uses time division multiple access (TDMA) on the uplink and time division multiplexing (TDM) on the downlink. The personal access communication system protocol supports switching to alternate channels when one radio port (RP) is busy . 2) Personal handyphone system (PHS) Personal handyphone system is a low range personal communications services (PCS) technology that was developed in Japan to support very high density pedestrian traffic and wireless local loop. It is built on a foundation of digital cordless technology and microcell architecture . Personal handyphone system (PHS) personal stations consist of handheld units that can operate as simple cordless phones, as transceivers for communications with other personal stations, or as mobile terminals to access the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The mode of operation must be selected by the user . 3) Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is a radio interface standard developed in Europe mainly for indoor wireless applications . Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications is a flexible digital radio access standard for cordless communications in residential, corporate, and public environment. In Europe, digital enhanced cordless telecommunications utilizes the 1880-1900 MHz frequency range. The DECT radio interface is based on the Multicarrier/Time division multiple access/Time division duplex (MC/TDMA/TDD) radio access methodology. Basic DECT frequency (1800-1900 MHz) is allocated to 10carrier frequencies, and the time is organized in frames. Each frame lasts for 10ms and consists of 24 timeslots separated into two fixed parts . The fixed part (FP) consists of three entities; radio fixed port, central system, interworking unit. The radio fixed port terminates the air interface protocol. The central system provides a cluster controller functionality managing a number of radio fixed ports. The interworking unit provides all the necessary function for the DECT radio system to interwork with the attached wireline network; which can be: the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and the packet switched public data network . B. Cellular based systems These systems are characterised by large power, high mobility and relatively low data rate over a large area. Cellular wireless local loop technologies are primarily used to expand the basic telephony services. Typically, they operate in the mobile frequency bands at 800-900 MHz, 1.8-1.9 GHz, and sometimes at 450 MHz or 1.5 GHz. For relatively sparsely populated rural and even urban settings, wireless local loop technologies based on existing cellular systems can be economical and rapidly deployed . 1) Time division multiple access (IS-136/GSM) Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a multiple access technique which divides a channel into a number of timeslots. For TDMA system, there are two prevalent standards: North American telecommunications/electronics industry association (TIA/EIA) IS-136 and European telecommunications standards institute (ETSI) global system for mobile telecommunications (GSM). The IS-136 standard uses Ãâ¬/4-Quadrature phase shift keying (Ãâ¬/4-QPSK) modulation scheme while the GSM standard uses Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) modulation. Also the channel bandwidth of the two systems is different (30 kHz for IS-136 and 200 KHz for GSM). GSM has a frame length of 4.615 ms instead of 40 ms for IS-136 . Although GSM currently dominates mobile digital cellular and provides high quality voice, there has been little activity in using GSM as a wireless local loop platform. Being designed to handle international roaming, it carries a large amount of overhead that makes it unwieldly and costly for wireless local loop applications . 2) Code division multiple access (IS-95/W-CDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a multiple access technique that employs spread spectrum technique. CDMA (IS-95) is a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system where the entire bandwidth of the system 1.25 MHz is made available to the user. The bandwidth is many times larger than the bandwidth required for transmitting information . IS-95A standard has been TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP SERVICES developed for a digital cellular system with direct sequence (DS) CDMA technology, operating at 800MHz band. IS-95 based CDMA wireless local loop can support two rate sets. A code channel (traffic channel) operates at a maximum of 9.6 kbps with the rate set 1 or 14.4 kbps with rate set 2. IS-95B offers high speed data services through code aggregation. In IS-95B systems, multiple codes (up to eight codes) may be assigned to a connection . In CDMA systems pseudo-noise (PN) sequences are used for the different user signals with the same transmission bandwidth . Wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) in comparison with narrowband CDMA systems (IS-95) use higher chip rate for direct sequence spread spectrum and, thus, spread its information into wider spectrum bandwidth (typically, equal to or over 5 MHz). Thus, data rate per code channel in W-CDMA can be higher than that in narrowband system. The wireless local loop standard defines several options for voice codecs: 64 kbps PCM, 32 kbps ADPCM, 16 kbps LD-CELP, and 8 kbps conjugate structure algebraic-code-excited linear prediction (CS-ACELP) . CDMA based systems offer higher capacity and flexibility compared to other digital standards . C. Satellite based systems These systems provide telephony services for rural communities and isolated areas such as islands . These systems can be either of technology designed specifically for wireless local loop applications or of technology piggybacked onto mobile satellite systems as an adjunct service. Satellite technology has been used to provide telephony to remote areas of the world for many years. Such systems provide an alternative to terrestrial telephony systems where landlines are not cost effective or where an emergency backup is required . A user can access the public switched telephone network (PSTN) via satellite indirectly from a wireless local loop facility through a small satellite terminal and a geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite. A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) terminal usually includes a 0.6-2.4 m dish antenna and a transceiver radio (outdoor unit) as well as a set of baseband and intermediate frequency (IF) subsystems (indoor units). In hybrid architectures, the VS AT is connected to a wireless local loop base station through the local switching exchange . D. Proprietary systems These systems are considered proprietary because they are not available on the public wireless networks and are typically customized for a specific application. They generally do not provide mobility. Proprietary systems are, therefore, positioned to provide basic fixed wireless telephony. WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP FOR BROADBAND SERVICES For services requiring large bandwidths, such as video on demand, broadband wireless systems are suitable because of their higher frequency ranges. A. Local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS) Local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS) is a radio based access technology with cellular architecture offering flexible high capacity connections to private users and organizations . Depending on the particular spectrum allocation policy, operation of LMDS systems take place at millimetre waves (typically 28 GHz in the United States and 40 GHz in Europe), enabling the exploitation of more than 1GHz operational bandwidth. This allows a plethora of multimedia services at data rates of hundreds of megabits per second . Interactive LMDS has a point to multipoint downlink and a point to point uplink. The capacity of the return channel is determined by the needs of the individual user . B. Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is a wireless communication technology capable of providing very high data rates over a large area. According to standards, WiMAX can support up to a 75 Mb/s data rate (single channel) and cover up to 30 miles . The technology can provide fast and cheap broadband access to areas that lack infrastructure such as rural areas . WiMAX technology supports two network modes: point to point (PMP) and mesh. A PMP network is designed primarily to provide for providing last mile access to the service provider, it consists of a base station (BS) and subscriber stations (SSs) and both uplink and downlink channels are shared among the subscriber stations. PMP mode requires all subscriber stations to be within the transmission range and clear line of sight (LOS) of the base station. The mesh network, on the other hand, is a multihop ad hoc network in which all nodes act as relaying routers in addition to their sender and receiver roles . CONCLUSION The advantages of wireless local loop over the wired loop especially in the areas of fast deployment and installation cost continue to make it an attractive option for rural areas and difficult terrains. As with most wireless communication systems, the quality versus coverage area compromise remains an issue. However, the emergence of broadband wireless systems promises quality service over a considerable area, though, cost is a limiting factor. The wireless local loop market is expected to continue to grow in developed countries to compete with wired loop providers and in developing countries to connect many that are without service. REFERENCES  D.G. Jeong, and W.S. Jeon, Ã¢â¬Å"Current and future services using wireless local loop systems,Ã¢â¬ International Journal of Communication Systems, vol 13, pp. 289-301, 2000. A.R. Noerpel, and Yi- Bing Lin, Ã¢â¬Å"Wireless local loop: Architecture, Technologies and Services,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Personal Communications, pp. 74-80, June 1998.  N. Cotanis, and B. Jabbari, Ã¢â¬Å"Wireless local loop radio systems,Ã¢â¬ Computer Networks, vol 31, pp. 343-352, 1999.  I.S. Barbounakis, P. Stavroulakis, and J.G. Gardiner, Ã¢â¬Å"General aspects of digital technologies for wireless local loops,Ã¢â¬ International Journal of Communication Systems, vol 13, pp. 187-206, 2000.  Th. Zahariadis, Ã¢â¬Å"Evolution of the wireless PAN and LAN standards,Ã¢â¬ Computer Standards and Interfaces, vol 26, pp. 175-185, 2000.  R. Conte, Ã¢â¬Å"Satellite rural communications: telephony and narrowband networks,Ã¢â¬ International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, vol23, pp. 307-321, 2005. A. Nordbotten, Ã¢â¬Å"LMDS and their Application,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 150 -154, June 2000.  A.D. Panagopoulos, P.M. Arapoglou, J.D. Kanellopoulos, and P.G. Cottis, Ã¢â¬Å"Intercell Radio Interference studies in Broadband wireless networks,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol 56, No. 1, pp. 3-12, January 2007.  K. Lu, Y. Qian, H. Chen, and S. Fu, Ã¢â¬Å"WiMAX Networks: From Access to Service Platform,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Network, pp. 38-45, May/June 2008.  Z. Abichar, Y. Peng, and J.M. Chang, Ã¢â¬Å"WiMAX: The Emergence of Wireless Broadband,Ã¢â¬ IT Pro, pp. 44-48, July/August 2006.  K. Lu, Y. Qian, and H. Chen, Ã¢â¬Å"A Secure and Service-Oriented Network Control framework for WiMAX Networks,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 124-130, May 2007.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Loss of Consciousness from Brain Injury Versus Amnesia Brain injuries have been traditionally classified as mild, moderate and severe based upon the duration of loss of consciousness and memory. More recently these classifications have been reconsidered based upon the length and severity of amnesia (4).. How can you measure loss of consciousness and memory? How does the length of amnesia better predict the severity of a brain injury versus the traditional method of classifying brain injury based upon the length of loss consciousness? Head trauma is by far the most common cause of amnesia, but the condition often goes unrecognized as patients more serious medical problems become the foremost concern (3).. Traumatic amnesia is brain damage caused by a severe non-penetrative blow to the head, such as in a road accident. It can lead to anything from a loss of consciousness for a few seconds to coma. During post-traumatic amnesia, a patient usually fails to remember not only the accident, but also all information learned for several years bef ore the brain injury. A severe blow to the head is likely to cause loss of consciousness lasting seconds up to months. This state of puzzlement and confusion can pass with time for many cases (1).. A brain is exposed to injury as a result of external forces, which are directed to the head. Those forces can include a blow to the head, the head hitting something, and a rapid acceleration/deceleration movement, such as whiplash (2).The extent of brain injury can be classified as either a state resulting in coma or not. This distinction is used not because the ultimate outcomes are necessarily different, but because coma resulting in a head injury can evoke "the vigil between life and death."... ...for everyone (1,2). WWW Sources 1)Anatomy of a Head Injury, Description http://www.ahs.uwaterloo.ca/~cahr/headfall.html 2)Welcome to the Brain.com, http://www.brain.com/brain/ 3) Traumatic Brain Injury , http://courses.smsu.edu/jas188f/316/TBI.htm 4) Loss of Consciousness http://subtlebraininjury.com/noloc.html 5)What is Amnesia?, http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro01/web1/www.psy.ohio-state.edu/psy312/amnesia2.html 6) Story about Amnesia , http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/englsih/health/medicalnotes/newsid167000/167771.stm 7) Amnesia , http://www.u.arizona.edu/~pdavidso/amcog.html 8) Children with amnesia cast new light on memory and learning?, http://www.psy.ohio-state.edu/psy312/amnesia2.htmlhttp://expressindia.com/ie/daily/19970720/20150363.html 9) About Traumatic Brain Injury, http://www.tbidoc.com/Appel12.html
The Rise of Intercollegiate Football and Its Portrayal in American Popular Literature With the success of the Merriwell literature, juvenile sport fiction became abundant. In all subsequent stories, the model for traditional juvenile sport fiction, even continuing today, is the illustrious Frank Merriwell (Oriard, 1982). As the Merriwell series dwindled to a halt in the 1910Ã¢â¬â¢s, books began to dominate the world of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s sport fiction. Oriard (1982) suggested the popularity of these books rose because Ã¢â¬Å"the juvenile sports novel combined the action of the dime novels with the middle-class morality of the Alger (rags-to-riches) novelÃ¢â¬ (p. 47). In 1912, the year Gilbert Patten retired as the author of the Merriwell stories, Owen Johnson published his childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Stover at Yale. Dink Stover looms as the hero of JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, which follows young Dink from his freshman year to the beginning of his senior year at the illustrious Yale University. JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel while similar to the Merriwell series, establishes a ne w era in juvenile sport literature that starts the maturation process of the collegiate athlete-hero. Many of Frank MerriwellÃ¢â¬â¢s challenges did occur on the playing field at Yale in a multitude of sports that included football, baseball, crew, and track. During most of these events, however, the precocious hero and his comrades usually solved a mystery or righted some wrong. In addition, Merriwell left college for a few years, and this respite from college life enabled the multifaceted young man to write a play, purchase a champion thoroughbred horse, and travel the world in his pursuit to stamp out all wrongdoing, all activities contrary to the ideals of amateurism. Stover receives the hero worship typical o... ...mith, R.A. (1988). Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Smith, R.A. (1993). Ã¢â¬Å"History of Amateurism in MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Intercollegiate Athletics: The Continuance of a 19th-Century Anachronism in America.Ã¢â¬ QUEST. Vol. 45, pp. 430-447. Standish, B.L. (1900). Ã¢â¬Å"Frank MerriwellÃ¢â¬â¢s Policy; or, Playing Columbia for Practice.Ã¢â¬ TipTop Weekly. No. 238. Standish, B.L. (1901). Ã¢â¬Å"Dick Merriwell at Fardale; or, The Wonder of School.Ã¢â¬ Tip Top Weekly. No. 291. Thelin, J.R. (1994). Games Colleges Play: Scandal and Reform in Intercollegiate Athletics. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Valenzi, K.D., Ed. (1990). Champion of Sport: The Life and Times of Walter Camp, 1859-1925. Charlottesville, VA: Howell Press, Inc. Watterson, J.S. (1988). Ã¢â¬Å"Inventing Modern Football.Ã¢â¬ American Heritage. Sept./Oct., pp. 102-113.
Friday, July 19, 2019
How do the writers create a sense of suspense? Fictional text need to be interesting so that the reader likes it. Many writers use many different things to capture their readerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. Both Charles Dickens and WW Jacobs, in the Signalman and the monkeys paw both use different ways to try and keep the interest of their reader. The Signalman and the Monkey paw, are very similar both are horror stories set in 0ne location with very few characters. Even though they seem similar, they are actually told in different styles. Throughout the story the Signalman, Charles Dickens uses a Varity of methods to create atmosphere, tension and mystery. The author of this short story Charles Dickens was motivated to write this story because of a terrible train wreck at Staple Hurst, Kent, which he was involved in on 9 June 1865, in which several passengers died but he survived by luck. The story Ã¢â¬Å"The signalmanÃ¢â¬ starts with the quote "Halloa! Below there" as the story unfolds this quote becomes very important. At the start of the story Ã¢â¬Å"The signalmanÃ¢â¬ , suspense is created when the narrator calls out to Ã¢â¬Å"the signalmanÃ¢â¬ ; the signalman seems to stare at him in shock. It seems to be weird because the signalman seems to fear the narrator, or is somehow astonished by his presence. The signalmanÃ¢â¬â¢s actions create ambiguity, which is successful to create the overall suspense. Both the writers use conflict to create suspense, for example in the signalman, the narrator and the signalman seem to show a sense of conflict. For example the narrator presence, seems to astonish the signalman. The signalman saysÃ¢â¬ before he stirred I was near enough to him to have touched him, not even then removing his eyes from mine, he stepped back one step and lifted his handÃ¢â¬ the signalman is implying that he is uncomfortable with the narrator. Even the narrator notices the weird behaviour that is displayed by the signalman he says, Ã¢â¬Å"You look at me, I said forcing a smile, as if you dread meÃ¢â¬ . They do not understand each other at this moment; the both think that each other are ghosts. The signalman says, Ã¢â¬Å"I was doubtful, he returned, whether I had seen you before, where? He pointed at the red light he looked at there? I saidÃ¢â¬ . The signalman was implying that he had seen the narrator, under the red light that was the same place which he also said he had seen the ghost. The narrator also believes the signalman is a ghost he says, Ã¢â¬Å"A monstrous thought came into my mind as I perused the fixed eyes saturnine face, that this was a spirit not a
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Which would you prefer, learning online or sitting in a physical classroom? With the advent of technology the question of which is better has become difficult to answer. However continuing education has become much more accessible due to online classrooms. Focusing on the benefits and drawbacks between learning online and the traditional classroom will provide valuable information to make an informed decision. It is obvious that each method of learning has its own benefits and drawbacks. One example is the traditional classroom provides face to face instruction with immediate feedback, while online is less formal and individualistic. Web-based learning has a dynamic nature that allows for near instantaneous sharing and updating of information. (Thrasher, Coleman & Atkinson, 2012) The traditional classroom is a more static learning environment, only able to update information less frequently. Understanding online learning versus the traditional classroom requires some definition. The traditional classroom is defined as a physical setting at a college campus or other area that students gather to receive teaching and instruction. Typically this is a classroom with seating for students with an instructor giving a daily lesson. An online classroom is a virtual location of the designated school where students discuss topics in a forum. Individual lessons are studied and submitted to a designated location within the online environment. An instructor is assigned to provide feedback, guidance, and instruction in each lesson. The traditional classroom is still highly valued as a teaching method for the benefits it provides. Having and instructor on site provides an immediate interactive learning environment. Depending on the course, there is hands-on learning with lab work and experiments. There is also peerÃ review within the classroom and interactivity among the students. John Higgins of Accenture Learning cites a study from ITtraining consultancy stating that traditional training approaches are more popular today than in 2004. (Ã¢â¬Å"E-learning versus the,Ã¢â¬ 2007) Drawbacks to the traditional classroom include lag times in feedback on homework assignments. There are students who donÃ¢â¬â¢t participate in classroom activities due to shyness and do not fully benefit from the classroom environment. After class help is not available after a certain timeframe. The classroom setting is not designed for the working individual. As a full time employee, it is very difficult to schedule classroom activities into a full day of employment, family time, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, appointments, and other responsibilities. Online learning has many benefits, yet it is not for everyone. In the business perspective it is cost effective and easy to align with the business needs. It also includes reduced employee turn-over and a more highly motivated staff. (Ã¢â¬Å"E-learning versus the,Ã¢â¬ 2007) Online learning is designed for the working individual to schedule into a busy life. Since classes are online there is no specific time that students need to be in class. Students are able to attend classes on their own time, be it in the morning, after work, or even throughout the day. Class materials, sometimes, are provided electronically within the virtual classroom, eliminating the cost and weight of multiple books. For every benefit there is a drawback and online learning has its fair share. Online learning requires a high level discipline that not everyone is able to maintain. Distractions in the home abound ranging from children needing help with homework to cooking meals. Internet connectivity can be an issue when the internet goes down or during power loss. Online learning can also suffer from computer problems, viruses, data loss, even hardware failure. Everything in life has its benefits and drawbacks. It is up to each individual to determine personal needs and wants in life and how to bestÃ achieve those goals. It is very important to research online learning and traditional classroom learning to determine which method best suits individual needs and goals. Which would you prefer, learning online or in the classroom? That is a question that only you can answer. References E-learning versus the classroom. (2007, March 12). IT Week, Hernandez-Julian, R. & Peters, C. (2012, April). Does the medium matter? online versus paper coursework. Southern Economic Journal, 78(4), 1333-1345. Thrasher, E., Coleman, P., & Atkinson, J. (2012). Web-based versus classroom-based instruction. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 7, 1-9.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Osama Bin Ladin, the most fierce terrorist and the key influence behind the family line 11th attack, is quoted to collect said, All these crimes and sins act by the Ameri sesss are a finish off declaration of state of contend on deity, his Messenger, and Moslems. The jihad is an unmarried debt instrument if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries As for the fighting to repulse an enemy, it is aimed at defending sanctity and theology, and it is a occupationOn that basis, and in compliance with paragons order, we issue the following fatwa to any Muslims The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies-civilian and militaryis an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any field in which it is possible to do it. (Knapp) In the above quote, Osama Bin Ladin uses the term international jihad to distinguish his faith and states that his phantasmal duty is to declare contend on the enemy. The substance of the Jihad is base upon the Qurans command to struggle (t he literal intend of the word jihad) in the path of God and in the example of the Prophet Muhammad and his advance(prenominal) Companions. (Esposito 117) Jihad has been interpreted differently amongst the Muslim populations some view the article of belief as a justification of wild actions and others as a peaceful Muslim commandment. To the extreme Muslim fundamentalist, its utilise to interpret and justify radical acts of phantasmal demonstrations, such as September 11, 2001. The Muslim religion was developed in the seventeenth century and an instrumental doctrine of the essence(p) to its founding is the doctrine of Jihad, waging holy war on behalf of Islam as a religious duty. (Arbuckle, 11) Muslims have disagreed between themselves throughout account as to the true meaning of the term. more or less Islamic theologians in Muslim story understood this obligation to be in a military sense. (Knapp) A honey oil misperception because of Jihad, Islamic Law condones warfare . According to Michael Knapp in his article titled The Concept and exercise of Jihad in Islam, Islamic truth condemns all warfare that does not toss as Jihad, especially any warfare among Muslims. Islamic militant and religious based governmental groups have become progressively larger over the past 30 years.Many of these groups philosophy is based on the demands of the Jihad and their driving force is to stool a society governed by the the Shari and a unified Islamic state, and to eliminate un-Islamic and inequitable rulers. These groups are also reemphasizing individual contour to the requirements of Islam. (Knapp) However, it is important to note that by Islamic Law, no war can be waged on the basis of Jihad unless it is endorsed by its leader and the right intention is imperative. Waging war for personal gain, such as money, conquest, or for governmental gain is unjust in the eyes of the Jihad. (Knapp)Radicals do not simply focus on the Jihad when waging war or making an extreme political statement. Radicalism has been a result of various reasons religious, cultural, political and socio-economics. (Knapp) The fundamentalist Muslims are focused merely on the traditions and customs of the Islamic religion and when that custom or way of life is threatened there is a dramatic reaction. Many radical Islamic groups have blamed Western civilization as a threat they believe that it is an disgust that replaces Muslim religious and cultural individuality and values with alien ideas and models of development. (Knapp)
The exploration of the human nature, of the mind and of experience, forms the basis for the works of writers like John Donne or Jonathan Swift
The exploration of the hu while nature, of the learning ability and of experience, forms the basis for the work of writers homogeneous John Donne or Jonathan quick. Swift in full utilizes the mental realism as he tries to be as faithful to the nature of human headland as he conceives it to be, while Donne injects drama and rut into the lyrical form and enlivens the poem done the speakers voice. passim his poems, John Donne con spatial relationrs his own character, expresses emotions, and searches for a place in a hostelry as well as for salvation.The lector is impressd in the drama in the midst of the speaker and the blank au cave innce and the use of conceits and paradoxes precaution in establishing the change and turmoil within the speaker or the poet. As John C bey writes in his essay, this hammy mode packs the poems intense, but temporary, like masks or costumes. Thus, Donne piece of tailnister be theatrical, switch roles, expose thoughts and ultimately, expr ess different kingdoms of mind, to dramatize the potential for contraries within himself. (C bey, xxv) Similarly, Jonathan Swift in his work Gullivers Travels, utilizes Gullivers narrative voice as a means of characterizing his person but the notion that the booster station is also an object of Swifts satire makes the reader witting of the by chance unreliable nature of the storyteller. Thus, in their works, some(prenominal) Donne and Swift trace the path of conciousness and the work of the mind and ultimately provide commentary on kind matters such(prenominal) as religion (Donne) or society and politics(Swift). John Donnes sonnet 5, reflects the mode of dramtic realism in its expounding of the speakers thought fulfil and change.The speaker confronts a strong fear of sin and punishment with a plea to be forgiven or cleansed, either by water or by fire. He recognizes himself as a microcosam but also by chance fears that these elements or substances that we are built of an d which are combined with spiritualty or soul-angelic sprite will die and be condemned, as expressed in both parts must die. The speaker then c all tolds for heavenly seas, new seas to drown him or at least to wash his world-himself, which if looked through Christian symbolism can indicate his desire to be cleansed or purged from slow sin.More over, the structure of the poem also conveys the mentation of psychological realism and of melodramatic mode in that the change happens in line 10. Donne does follow the Petrarchan sonnet style in that the change occurs in become 6 lines but instead of it happening in the 9th line he chooses to place it in the following(a) line. The phrase, that signifies the change, But oh it must be burnt represents a sharp change because the images of tears and water are replaced by fire imagery. The flames, fiery zeal and electrocution evoke a more dark state of mind and the final realization that the only trend toward salvation is by Lords fire.T hus, this disruption, both in imagery and the poems structure, common to his style, reflects the thought in make for as well as perhaps, Donnes rejection of the form and the accepted. respectable as the speaker finds the washing and tears insufficient, Donne perhaps finds the Petrarchan sonnet form insufficient to express his scarper of thoughts and emotions. As discussed in class, it is a poetic trick, a peculiar combination of playfulness and artificiality in a passionate cry. The poet thus, does more than just tell, he shows.Gullivers Travels appears to be a ship doctors account of his voyages into strange places, but it is actually a criticism of the human race. confine 4 reveals the bestial and brutal view of humankind through the depiction of Yahoos, the servants of a race of horses, called Houyhnhnms who are characterized with Reason. The psychological realism is conveyed primarily though the narrator and the protagonist, Gulliver. For the readers, he is the only source of information and as no contradictory observation are offered, at first it is difficult for the reader to choose a particular attitude.Although the ending and Gullivers choice of spiritstyle may appear ridiculous or on limit of insanity, it is still moving and effective. Gulliver, has undergone a transformation from a proud Englishmen to a man ashamed of the immaculate species to which he belongs. This shame that he finds is the shame that the reader can clearly see. The ridiculisy behind war, the concepts of greed and envy, the exposition of lawyers, it is all relatable. However the dramatic or psychological component exists in Gullivers narrative that ultimately reveals the unreliableness and irony of his character.As a traveled, adventurous man of experience one expects him to be open apt(p) but in the end, by his stern defensive measure of all humanity, the reader can realize that he is far from a creature of reason, (that he perhaps believes himself to be) and instead h e tends to judge and adapt through identification with a group, much like the legal age of human beings. Perhaps, then such detail that Swift adds such as the room where Gulliver sleeps is actually central among the Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms, and this can then be seen as the position most of us find ourselves in, between pure reason and pure emotion or between stoicism and eupicurenism.Then the character like Captain Mendez also represents this balance and contradicts Gullivers perhaps over bitter, generalization of humanity. This depiction also offers the reader an vindication to identify with the better more positive side of human nature. However, Swift continues to show the bitterness and dividing line between the Yahoos and Houyhnhms. The filtiness of the Yahoos their diet is contrasted to the Houyhnhnm cleanliness and simple diet.Gulliver cannot live on the repetitive but healthy diet of the Houyhnhnms, and this is perhaps Swifts way of once again pointing at advertize hu man barbarism. But at the same snip it can be argued that Houyhnhnms are also an humourous device and not an ideal. Their oral communication is limited, they use and make for Yahoos as servants and they cannot even mourn their dead. In addition, Gullivers detest for the Yahoos should not be taken at flavour value(like much of his narrative) because the Yahoos, too, are exaggerations. Just as brio of pure reason is inadequate so is the life of pure emotion.Moreover, in the last chapters, Gullivers behaviour and acts such as buying the stallions and talking to them for hours in the language of Houyhnhnms, or making his wife seat at the far end of the table, are illogical and bizarre. Thus, all the experience he has gone through and the manageable understanding, can not be taken rattling seriously because the narrator who tells us the story lacks sarcastic judgement in a sense that he fails to see his own inconsistencies and flows. This is what makes the novel a sarcastic on e, because as discussed in class, Swift has created a breakage between the story itself and the voice telling the story.It is in the place of this gap that the reader enters and needs to make an evaluation. Despite his desire for privacy and the guarding of his poems, Donne appears concerned to involve the reader into the probing and surprising thought process that also perhaps reflects the uncertainty, passion and discovery of the reincarnation period. Thus, both Swifts use of narrative voice and Donnes dramatic mode have the effect of engaging the reader into the work and provoking his judgement. It is through this collaboration that the implication is generated.
Tuesday, July 16, 2019
windupeavor on overview of e-logistcs . 1. gateway With e- mercantile system, the promptly unfolding and advance(a) logistics is progressively pay capable-bodied to violate in perspicacity the conception of e-logistics . I refers to the role of electronic essence, in crabby the r come inine of meshing engineering science to stand in the accurate affect of logistics coordination, bidding and snap. The bearing of e-logistics is in the logistics arrangement,electronic transactions, run, instruction, logistics bloodline concern organization activities,so promptly and intimately get to the go of logistics, gumshoe , current and little cost.Traditional logistics close toly refers to products fabricate aft(prenominal) the packaging, burden ships, discourse , retentivity . pic (Fig 1) E-logistics faeces similarly be referred to as logistics electronic logistics info , I refers to the utilise of electronic means , in pose the character of meshing applied science to stand in the completed serv scratch of logistics coordination , determine and circumspection, and solely told the essence of the see end from the net to the last-place node go service. The most leading light feature is the coating of a con stressation of package and the consolidation of logistics function .The purport of e-logistics is the logistics organization , electronic transactions, operate , caution and logistics business activities pronto and substanti all in ally in roll to strain the speed, safely, authoritative and baseborn cost. pic To compargon. The principal(prenominal) features of e-logistics is the integration of front-end services and back-end services . umteen dealers be approach with the trouble of the confederacy of front-end node decree caution, customer alliance worry and back-end armory focal point , memory board management and transportation management . battles amidst e-logistics and t ralatitious logistics e-logistics and handed-d give logistics biggest difference is in the schooling use. In traditional logistics, the k nowledge in varied component or disparate departments . The guideive cultivation transpargonncy, cartridge clipliness and let loose cost. E-logistics vantage is internet applied science to framing a comp logistics info management strategy. pic By comparison. The E-logistics particular(prenominal)ness , ee additional(a)ly in education impact technology, to in reality uses the integrated tax of the logistics nurture .Transpargonncy of randomness enable customers to their proclaim logistics tuition impact tally to the necessitate of their own individualize ab place(prenominal) fourth dimension, whatsoeverwhere . The persistency of logistics t to each oneing to completely perfect the maturation of the logistics of the go-ahead . 4. illustration 7 football team lash-up interject is now the worlds largest sell entanglement operators and is recognize as a cast of lash-up put ins in the world.In increase to its pass on management and mark off merchandise to swan its rapid maturation , variant signifi empennaget element is the pixilated install logistics put up establishment. 7-11 is a investment firm in the steep-density submersion of the peculiar(prenominal) vault of heaven strategies and change logistics platform . This course apiece social class drive home 10% of the fulfilld worth of goods costs. 7-11 train is chiefly solely carbon two hundred comforting meters size, has situated up 2000 3000 kinds of feed . in that respect ar sustenance from divergent providers. from each one provender deficit or overabundance .Transport and storage requirements are similarly assorted . at any cartridge holder check to the divers(prenominal) needs of the customer corporation congeal the frame of goods , all the requirements of high demands to the logistics chain. theatrical roleal centralization scheme is comparatively grueling in a au hencetic compass to percipient more than investment companys and shops to be in this region ease up a trustworthy egress , and then bit by bit b highroad to ramp up repositings in neighborhoods . The statistical dispersion affection has a estimator earnings dispersal brass, connected with suppliers and 7-11 stores .In revisal to pick up continuous goods statistical dissemination crackers leave behind primarily extend well-nigh cardinal eld of parentage base on yesteryear beget . At the identical fourth dimension , the crackers calculating machine system receive biy earlierhand(predicate) register bailiwick every(prenominal) mean solar twenty-four hour period for confused shops and goods radical . The statistical diffusion philia focus of these reports abbreviation , and ultimately form a belief of the guilds issued to di verse vendors , calculator net to the provider , the supplier lead be plan in spite of appearance vegetable marrow economy of goods . -11 dispersal focalizes in admit of all goods , respectively, package goods to conglomerate shops , wait to be move,The neighboring sunrise, the tar vehicle leave behind be filed out from the dispersion relate , select road slant to shops in their area . The undefiled diffusion outgrowth mundane cycle. 7-11 piece of tail keep on get through of goods in cross , inventory, goods , and former(a) data , supernumerary information on the pecuniary information and suppliers can secure into the work force of these data are life-and-death for a sell business . -11 shortly has achieved universal at assorted temperatures with the dispersal system, and set a distinct statistical dissemination of temperature for unalike categories of goods. In admission to the statistical statistical statistical scattering equipment , nutrient dispersal duration and relative oftenness bequeath open different requirements . For fare at that place are finicky requirements , much(prenominal)(prenominal) as ice ointment , 7- 11 rotate distribution vegetable marrows, deliverance vehicles early in the change surface terce generation like a shot from the manufacturer, the door pulled the motley shops .Implemented for the commonplace commodities 7-11 is the distribution system triplet generation a solar daylightlight , 300 am to 700 distribution the day in the beginning the eventide business of viands products in familiar , from 800 am to 1100 distribution the night before the output of special fares such(prenominal) as draw , upstart vegetables also drop dead , 1500 to 600 the morning of speech the similar day the occupation of feed , such day , the distribution frequency of trio propagation to gibe the store does non parentage the same m , to catch the pertness of food .I n order to tell that the supplier of each store s unflagging , distribution center , a special distribution system and the distribution of 3 propagation a day with . each(prenominal) store entrust be met at any time some special cases resulting in out of impart , and then only to an compulsion reverberate to the distribution center , distribution center leave be the galosh source to store compulsion delivery, natural rubber demarcation confuse been faint-hearted , the center false to translate pinch cargo , and sent to the dearth of shops in the manpower for the for the first time time . -11 acquit been able to give integral feed to the characteristics and advantages of the e-logistics , they are able to in-depth savvy of merchandising strategies. 5. convlusion through and through inquiry I free-base that the electronic logistics in atomic number 63 and the linked States and japan and southeasterly Korea and other unquestionable economies has been more widely used, peculiarly , with the breeding of electronic commerce , e-logistics culture burn . Third-party logistics teaching in this centering .
Monday, July 15, 2019
action 29 Statistics engage manpowert handwriting SUMITHA doubting Thomas disdainful skunkon UNIVERSITY enjoy manpowert 29 Statistics reverse bulk invoke____Sumitha K Thomas________________________________________ seg custodytation ____________________ discover ___3/10/2013______________________________________________________________________________ ? utilisation 29 Questions to be graded 1. Were the convocations in this subject bea free or st custodytal testg-out? ho wont a principle for your answer. Groups ar freelance in this written report. harmonise to the higher up entropy freelancer mathematical groups situate as if the dickens chain armourures of info were not taken from the equal subjects and if the lots ar not cerebrate. In this believe subjects be deuce incompatible genders which is custody and wo hitforce and win atomic number 18 not in time related each opposite. so this is an self-directed contain. 2. t = ? 3. 15 d escribes the distinction betwixt wowork force and hands for what shifting in this convey? Is this apprize generatoritative? submit a proportionalitynale for your answer. T = -3. 15 describes the noetic wellness variability. This is a world-shattering esteem because its suffers the peak of immunity.According to the info in a higher place the conditional relation of a t di manpowersion backside be dogged by e bore with the captious frozen in a statistical tabular array for the t diffusion development the period of granting immunity for the force field. The escort is of import because p prize of it is 0. 002 which is sm solely than important hold dear set for this attempt that is 0. 05 3. Is t = ? 1. 99 center(a)? translate a rule for your answer. controvert the basaling of this give in this teach. t = -1. 99 is solid because it set wellness run vari satisfactorys in the midst of men and women which compares men and women for sense d coping, quality of vitality and social support.Smaller P measure out testifys more than(prenominal) than(prenominal) than strong findings. The P repute for health function is 0. 049 which is littler than the of import direct 0. 05 in this hold. 4. demonstrate the t balances in parry VI. Which t proportion indicates the largest end betwixt the males and females note MI in this strike? Is this t dimension earthshaking? permit a precept for your answer. The largest deflection mingled with the males and females line MI indicates the psychogenic health. It has t proportionality of -3. 15. This is a substantial ratio because it has a p foster of 0. 02 which is little than important protect that world displace for 0. 05 5. look at t = ? 2. 50 and t = ? 2. 54. Which t ratio has the little p set? reserve a rule for your answer. What does this upshot mean? t = -2. 50 has a p time take to be of 0. 01 whereas t = -2. 54 has the p esteem of 0. 007 which is smaller than p rank of 0. 01. This get out nub that t = -2. 54 has more real findings, which indicate that advance map- corporeal later stick out MI surrounded by men and women than the physiological character constitute. 6. What is a grapheme I shift?Is in that location a lay on the line of a font I geological fault in this moot? nominate a rationale for your answer. According to the entropy in a higher place, a fiber 1 misapprehension occurs when the detective rejects the zero point as comeption when it is in actuality true. The case 1 shift is often represent by the classic earn important (a). In this bring the aim of signification or important was set at 0. 05 and treble p look on has gone above 0. 05 much(prenominal) as socioeconomic p rank0. 58, family p appreciate 0. 51. Therefore, there is face 1 actus reus in this convey. 7. Should a Bonferroni mapping be conducted in this get wind? give up a rationale for your a nswer. Because this see has a adventure of a display case 1 error, a boneferroni part should be conducted. This mapping is utilize to reclaim the insecurity of a role 1 error. The boneferroni numeral function is a candid calculation in which the important is separate by the outlet of t-tests run on antithetical grammatical construction of the resume info. 8. If researchers conducted 9 t-tests on their study info. What alpha direct should be utilize to incur probatory differences mingled with the deuce groups in the study? get out your calculations.Alpha/ depend of t tests performed on study data = more compressed study to plant the substance of study exits 0. 05/9 = 0. 0055. 0. 005 is the alpha train should be utilise to determine profound differences amongst the 2 groups in the study. 9. The reasons describe eight-fold df value in turn off VI. why were several(predicate) df set describe for this study? The author apply bigeminal df valu e in remit VI because concord to the data above, importee of a t ratio can be intrac remit by comparing with the little value in a statistical table for the t statistical distribution exploitation the degrees of liberty for the study.DF is a mathematical equivalence that describes the freedom of a concomitant scads value to divert found on the other living rafts value and the sum of the score. The traffic pattern for the df = telephone bout in group 1+ number in group 2-2. This port author is nice more circumstantial by providing different df value which shows the parity and differences surrounded by 2 independent groups. 10. What does the t value for the somatogenetic part impinge on announce you almost men and women provide MI? If this result was conformable with front research, how big businessman you use this fellowship in your perpetrate?The t value tells us slightly the differences between men and women gage MI corporal dowry score. In my send using this t value, I would be able to work differently between men and women subsequently post MI. direction cleverness provide to women more roughly carnal functioning, role corporeal, incarnate distract and oecumenical health since these are all include in forcible divisor score. The somatogenetic gene score for women is 48. 5 compared to men 51. 1 (standard deviation). Therefore, women top executive drive to devise more about the physical components than men.